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《宋氏外贸讲座》

已有 8766 次阅读2011-8-24 23:25 分享到微信


宋氏讲座┱《外贸函件速成模式》

宋德利 著

前言
近日整理书籍,偶然翻出前些年我在国内出版的外贸英语系列丛书,重新浏览一下,觉得其中一些东西似乎现在仍具参考价值,于是萌生上网摘要发表的想法。作为尝试,首先从《外贸英语函信件百日通》一书中选发一些如何书写外贸函件的范例,供感兴趣的朋友参考。所选内容,除将年月日改得比较近之外,其它未做修改,基本原汁原味。
《外贸英语函信件百日通》是一本外贸书信实用段落集锦,目的在于方便读者模仿式学习,使之化整为零,日日开卷,天天有得,日积月累,集腋成裘,以期在有意无意之中,收或巨或细之功。
本书按外贸业务环节,分若干专题,而且均有专文加以概述。每一小段分为四个部分┱译题、译注、译例、译解。译题内容围绕有关专题而选;译注是对个别英语词汇加以注释,并注有国际音标,供初学者参照(本部分在此从略);译例则是外贸函件典型段落汉英对照,是本书的核心;译解则是对英译中的语言点加以解释。为扩大初学者的知识面,解释范围有意加以适当扩展,言之所及,涉猎宜广,志之所在,决非囿于外贸之小天地。
本书编写体例虽颇多休闲色彩,然笔者决意不敢向读者奉上散沙一盘。读者只要慢慢研读,细细体味,自会发现一根外贸业务环节之主线贯穿始终,故而使其为玉而不碎,为珠而不散。只要原来略有基础,再佐以此书加以补充,每天学一点,日积月累,持之以恒,在书写外贸函件时,则诚然可望得心应手,乃至游刃有余。非但如此,在开阔基础英语视野方面,亦会有所获益。
看过我在美语世界发表的文学译品之网友,可能会奇怪地问我,怎么会发表这类与文学翻译毫不相干的外贸函件呢?诸位有所不知,笔者在来美之前,一直在外贸系统供职25年之久,外贸才是我的本行,外贸书信不可或缺。本书原是为外贸业务员培训班编写的函件写作教材,后继续补充,总共七册,终成系列丛书规模,由天津科技翻译出版社出版发行,《外贸英语函信件百日通》即为其中之一。



第一章 询盘及报盘
询盘就是询问货价,这是所有询函中最普通的一种,买卖双方第一次交易,买方难免要向卖方询问许多事项,比如销售条件、销售服务、产品制造等情况,其中最具直接关系的不外乎询问价格情况。站在买方的立场是询盘,即询问货价,站在卖方立场则是报盘,即报告货价。
在国际贸易中,报盘有两个英文说法,一是offer,一是quote。前者是肯定的,即使交易中途价格发生变动也不能再更改;后者则可以视情况有更改的余地。
卖方在售价决定后,接着就要向买方开出报价单,或写报价信,前者叫quotation form, 后者叫quotation letter ,都可简称quotation,内容包括货品名称、数量、规格、包装条件、所开价格、付款条件、交货期限和有效期等。
一封报价书信除了答复对方的询问和主动报价外,还可以有其它作用,比如自我介绍,说明卖方的计划,提出卖方经常押汇的银行,还可以附上相关样品或商品目录等相干数据,供买方作为决定的依据。买方这时对透过押汇银行着手调查卖方的信用情况。
信末最好用强劲的断语,比如┱相信短期内就能收到您的订单。(We trust to have your order shortly.

第一节.
译题┱
我曾经在本地一老顾客的商店中看到贵公司所制衬衣,他们特别推荐说贵司是一家可靠的服装制造商,而且产品价格合理。请寄来一份商品目录,我对呢绒尤其感兴趣。
译例┱

I have seen one of your shirts in the store of a local firm with whom I have regular dealing and they have recommended you as a maker of reliable and at the same time inexpensive garments. Please send me a copy of your catalogue. I am particularly interested in woolen piece goods.
译解┱

1. local firm:
本地公司。Local 本题中作当地解。其它相近的意思如地方的。地方工业,local industry. 地方民族主义,local nationalism.还有作当地的解。当地时间,local time. 更有作局部解,如局部战争,a local war. 局部麻醉,local anaesthesia. 当然在美国最常用的日常意思是慢车。相应的快车中的express, 而不是quick fastFirm, 本文作公司解。其它还有坚定等解释。

2. recommend:
此字最基本的解释是推荐。向某人推荐某人某物。比如,我愿向您推荐此书。I would like to recommend this book to you. 我愿推荐他为模范业务员。I would like to recommend him as a model businessman. 再如本题中的recommended you as a maker of ----garments. 推荐贵公司为----服装制造商。此外,这个词还可作托付解。如,I’d like to recommend my little son to your care. 我想把我的小儿子托付给您照料。

3. woolen piece goods:
羊毛面料,毛料,呢绒布料。piece goods:面料,匹头,非成衣面料。

第二节

译题┱
请贵司注意,我司所报价格是西雅图FOB价,而不是西雅图FAS价,或香港CIF价,而且此报价有效日期到2006531日截止。因为此需求已经日益增加,请贵司尽早决定。
译例┱

Your attention is drawn to the facts that the price we quoted is on an FOB Seattle basis instead of on either FAS Seattle or CIF Hong Kong basis and that our offer will be valid until May 31, 2006. As the demands for cotton piece goods have been very heavy of late, your early decision and reply are requested.
译解┱

1. FOB
┱船上交货,是Free On Board 之略所语,这是按英文字面的直译,按照实际含义,也叫离岸价格,请注意随后的详解。

2. FAS
┱船边交货,是Free Alongside Ship之略缩语。

3. CIF
┱到岸价,是Cost , Insurance and Freight之略缩语。
这三者的区别在哪里呢?通俗一点说,FOB船上交货,也叫离岸价格,是说把货物安全装到船上就万事大吉,至于此后海上出什么事,到了对方出什么事,一概不管。因此风险小。而FAS船边交货,风险更小,因为只要把货物安全运到船跟前的地面上就万事大吉,从货物离开地面的那一时刻起,出了什么事一概不负责任,即便货物从空中掉在地上摔碎了,也没有责任。而CIF到岸价格风险最大,因为卖方要负责货物在抵达对方港口之前的一切风险。也即是说,从货物离开卖方仓库,到进入大海,海上遇到风浪、海啸、海盗等等一切原因造成的损失都要负责,当然价格要贵得多,因为里面包含有保险I insurance的缩写) 。一般来讲,在外贸业务中,用 FOB┱或CIF比较多,起码在笔者长期从事外贸工作期间,不记得曾经遇到过使用FAS的情况。

4. demands for cotton piece goods,
对棉布的需求。注意,demands 用的是复数形式,而且后面接for,类似的还有order for, 关于何物的订单,也用for连接。

第三节
译题┱
最近本公司收到许多信件,询问贵公司制造的轻便雨衣,因此,本司确信,如贵司的价格具有竞争性,我们必定会经常向您订购。
译例┱

We have recently received a number of requests for your lightweight raincoats and have good reasons to believe that we could place regular orders with you provided your prices are competitive.
译解┱

1. provided
,只要。

2. your prices are competitive,
贵司的价格具有竞争性。competitive, 有竞争性的。形容价格的词非常之多,现列于下,以供参考┱
net price
,净价,实价;
good price,
好价钱;
gross price,
毛价;
half price
,半价;
hard price,
稳定的高价,高而不降的价格;
heavy price,
昂,高价;
highest price,
最高价;
inbond price,
未完税价;
absolute price,
绝对价格;
accounting price,
结算价格;
actual price,
实际价格;
administered price,
管制价格,限价;
advanced price,
上涨了的价格;
all-round price,
全价;
asked price,
卖主的开价;
average price,
平均价格;
bargain price,
廉价,对买主有利的价格;
base price,
基础价格, 基价;
bedrock price,
最低价格;
bid price,
买主的出价;
black market price,
黑市价格;
blanket price,
总括格,一揽子价;
buyer’s price,
对买主有利的价格,低价;
buying price,
买价;
cash price,
现金价格;
ceiling price,
最高价格;
closing price,
收盘价格;
comparable price,
可比价格;
cost price,
成本价格,生产价格;
current price,
时价,市价;
delivered price,
包括运费的价格;
demand price,
需求价格;
discount price,
打过折扣的价格;
exceptional price,
特价;
excessive price,
过高的价格;
extra price,
附加价格;
fair price,
合理的价格;
just price
,公平价格;
favorable price,
实惠价格,优惠价格;
firm price,
固定价格;
flexible price,
灵活价格;
floor price,
最低价格。


第四节
译题┱
深信贵公司会了解,我们的报价相当合理。我们急欲尽一切力量协助贵司成交一笔新交易。于此,若贵司能于一个月之内付款,我们愿给予贵方第一份订单百分之三的特别折扣。
译例┱

We feel sure you will realize that our quoted price is very reasonable, but we are anxious to do what we can to help you to establish your new business and are prepared to allow you a special first-order discount of 3% if payment of the account is made within one month.
译解┱

1. feel sure,
感到有把握,因此含相信之义,当然也可以译成believe.

2. anxious to do what we can,
急欲尽一切力量。anxious,此处没有焦急焦虑之义。尽一切力量还可译作try one’s best, do one’s utmost, make every effort, spare no effort.

3. allow you a special first-order discount of 3%,
愿给予贵方第一份订单百分之三的特别折扣。allow,基本意思是允许让某人得到之义。

4. The account is made
,付款。


第五节

译题┱
这些产品,本公司已经生产近半个世纪,世界各地均有销售,顾客为此感到非常满意。因此,我们确信,无论是货物的质量,还是生产工艺都将会获得贵方赞许。
译例┱

We have been producing these products for almost half a century and they have been sold throughout the world to the fullest satisfaction of our customers. Therefore, we are sure that both quality and the workmanship of our products would meet with your approval.
译解┱

1
We have been producing,我们一直在生产,使现在完成进行时态,不同于现在完成时态。完成进行时态更全面,不仅表示现在已经完成某种动作,而且这种动作现在依然在进行。

2
Meet with your approval, 获得贵方赞许。Meet with 有不同的含义┱1,偶然见到或垠到。如This sort of persons are rarely met with in our company. 这号人在我们公司极其少见。2。得到赞许、满意等。The plan has met with approval. 这一计划获得批准。We will do our best to meet with the requirement of the customers. 我们要努力去满足客户的要求。


第二章 推销
广义来讲,任何商业书信都是推销书信,推销货物恰好是其中的一种。至于书写推销书信的要诀不外乎下列四点┱1。吸引注意力;2。提起兴趣;3。刺激购买欲;4。激发行动。
有些公司聘用推销员为货物的销售打先锋,但是由于资金、精力和时空的限制,不可能逐一地亲自向顾客推销,因此推销书信就成了最经济,最不可或缺的代用品了。
在下笔写推销信之前,首先要对你推销的产品相当熟悉,然后要把握住这封信推销的主要目的,找出一些能引起读者兴趣的事实及例证,仔细整理一番。这时你心里或许已经形成一封信的概念了,诸如┱从何着手、分几个段落、每一短都写什么,切勿忘记你正在推销。这一切准备工作都已完毕,一封推销信的腹稿就算拟定了。
当然,除了推销信之外,一些具体周到的服务一定会有帮助,比如漂亮的图片、精美的样品、介绍商品的小册子,其它还如商品目录、传单,乃至现场实验,都可以使对方加深对商品的了解,使其兴致勃然而发,只有这样,他才能阅读包括推销信之类的相关资料。
不过,这个时候你可能会遇到一个最大,也是最糟糕的麻烦,那就是拖延,尤其是在买方填写订单决定要买货的一?那,这种情况屡见不鲜。那么你就要在信的结尾使出杀手 ,即写上一个行之有效的句子。语气要坚定,要有说服力,或劝诱、或敦促、或激将,卖点儿关子也不失为佳策。比如,可以暗示,即便明说也未尝不可,过一段时间此货可能涨价,强调库存有限等等。
拖延,这也是人之常情,因此只写一封推销信往往不够。万一第一封发出一段时间而杳无音信,就得再写一封,在劝诱一番。有时对方的确是忙得不可开交,忘记回信,这种情况乃是在所难免,而因为难以迅速做出决定而迟迟无法回信,也可以理解。这时,一封劝诱信或许就能增进他做决定的速度。如果老主顾最近疏于联系,这种劝诱信则既可联络情谊,又可提醒注意。
万一前封信在报价方面双方产生分歧意见,这时就很可能会来一次讨价还价。而这次讨价还价的结果很可能就是决定这笔交易成败最关键的终极因素。因此,执笔之际万万不可掉以轻心。这时不妨将产品的优点、服务的热情周到、价格的公道或其它种种特点再逐一加以强调。若是马到成功了,自会接到对方的确认报价的函件,否则就是遭到了拒绝。


第一节

译题┱
敝公司深以为憾。自从去年4月以来便没有再收到贵公司的订单。因为贵司一直未对我们的产品或服务质量有任何抱怨,所以我们相信本公司并没有令贵司不满意的地方。倘若真有的话,本公司非常乐于知晓。
译例┱

We are sorry to notice that we have had no orders from you since last April. As you have at no time complained either about our products or about the quality of our service, we can only assume that we have given you no cause to be dissatisfied. If we have, then we should be glad to know of it.
译解┱

1
Complain, 抱怨。与此相似的还有grumble, murmur. He is always complaining about something. 他常常抱怨什么事。I shall complain before the court regarding his evil doing. 我将向法院控诉他的劣迹。He complained to the teacher of Tom’s dishonesty. 他向老师告汤姆的作弊行为。He complains of hunger. 他为饥饿所苦。He complains of pain in the head. 他患头疼病。He complains of his son’s misconduct. 他抱怨儿子行为不端。I have nothing to complain of. 我没有可抱怨的事。Complain 抱怨解时,是说别人待他不公,因而向他人诉说。凡称为complain的,总是对他人诉说。Grumble, 发怨言。别人待他不公,但并不一定向他人诉说,只是自对自地发怨言。Murmur, 发怨言。此字的意义与grumble相同,不一定向他人诉说,只是自己对自己发牢骚。

2
Assume, 相信。但此处有猜测之义。How can you assume me to be responsible for it? 你怎么能臆断我该对这件事负责呢?I assume that it is so. 我假定它是这样。除作假定、假设解,还作假装解。例如┱They assume an air of gravity. 他们佯装倨傲状。He assumed the great man. 他装出伟人的气概。His look of happiness is only assumed. 他那欢乐的样子完全是假装的。The man assumed modest. 那人假作谦虚。He took an assumed name. 他用了假名。此外,还可作承担、担当解。如┱I assumed the responsibility. 我负责。
第二节
译题┱
本公司就823日的估价单附加说明如下,我们非常乐于知道,是否还有其它方面需要我们再为贵司效劳的。
译例┱

With reference to our estimate of the 23rd August, we shall be glad to know whether we can be of further service to you.
译解┱

Estimate,
此处指估价单。本意为估价、评价、预算。We need to make an estimate beforehand. 我们事先需要预算好。At a rough estimate, 依据大约的计算。以上诸例中,estimate 都是名词。还可以作动词用。The expense is estimated a three millions. 这项费用预算三百万元。It is estimated that five hundred dollars will be appropriated to him. 预计将拨给他五百元。与estimate相类似的词有value, 二者有何区别呢?estimate, 估计。意思是给予一个价值,尤指给予一个不确定的价值。You estimate his worth too highly. 他对他的价值估计过高了。而value,重视,意思是做高的估价。The manager highly valued my work. 经理十分重视我的工作。另外,He valued the machine at 20,000 dollars. 他估计这台机器价值两万元。

第三节
译题┱
于此,本公司就515日的报价单和昨天的电话交谈补充说明如下。我们希望贵司现在已有机会比较敝公司的价格,相信其结果是对敝司有利的。
译例┱

We desire to refer to our quotation of the 15th May and our yesterday’s call. We hope that you have now had an opportunity of comparing our prices, and that the result is favorable to us.
译解┱

Quotation,
外贸术语,报价单。此处不是引述Refer to our quotation, 此处作提及、谈到解。此外,refer 还有不少用法。Most diseases are referred or are referable to the action of bacilli. 多数疾病都归因于细菌的活动。I referred to his former employer for his character. 我向他的旧雇主探查他的品行。I have examined all the documents referring to the matter. 关于这件事的所有文件我都查阅过。I referred the question to the company. 我把那问题交到公司解决。As I can’t answer your question, I refer you to my manager. 因为我不能回答你的问题,请去向我的经理请教。I beg to refer you to my manager for my work. 请向我的经理探询我的工作情况。

第四节
译题┱
我们非常高兴地收到贵司的询问函,相信贵司已经收到我们613日寄出的第205号样品。而今贵司有此机会来检视敝公司提供的货物,想必贵公司定会试订一些。为方便贵公司,于此附上一份订购表格。
译例┱

We were pleased to receive your inquiry, and trust you received our sample No.205 sent to you on June 13th. Now that you have had a chance to examine what we have to offer, we thought you might like to make a trial order. To make this easier for you we are enclosing an order form.
译解┱

1
Trust, 相信,信任。于此相似的还有belief, credit, faith. 这三者的区别何在呢?Belief, 信仰。最普通的用语。Credit, 信用。特指商业上的信用。Belief, trust, faith 这三个词都含有宗教信仰的意味。Credit 一词中决不含有这种意义。Faith, 信心。当它特指宗教的信仰时,那是belief trust这两个词结合起来的意义。而trust 在商业上用得较多。

2
Receive, 收到。与其相似的有accept, 二者的区别十分微妙。Receive, 收到,是收到他人奉献的或赠送的物品。此词指的是受动的行为,表示的仅仅是受取,没有满意或承诺的含义。例如单单接受请帖,称为receive. 如果说不仅接受,而且还应许前往参加,那就要用accept. Receive 仅仅表示不拒绝,而accept 还表示满意地接受之义。在accept的意义中,含有receive的意味,而在receive的意义中,却不含有accept 的意味。如┱I have received a letter from him. 我收到他的一封信。Accept,接纳。在receive的意义中,再加上接纳或承诺的意味,它就成了accept的意义,指好意的接纳。如┱He accepted our payment terms. 他接受了我们的付款条件。注意┱accept主要用作及物动词,但也可以作不及物动词,而在后面接of, 表示较为正式的意味,又含有谦让的意味。如┱I accept of your offer. 我接受你的报盘。

第五节
译题┱
在短期内,本公司大概不会再提出如此低廉的价格。于此,我们深盼贵方尽早有所回复。这样,我们才能亲自向你们展示新产品的全部货色。
译例┱

In all probability this offer will not be repeated for some time, and we accordingly look forward to receiving an early reply from you, then we should be pleased to demonstrate the complete range of these novelties.
译解┱

In all probability,
大概,或然。In all probability our plan will succeed. 我们的计划大概会成功。In all probability I shall never see him again. 我大概永远也不能再见他了。There is little probability that he will come. 他会来的希望很渺茫。There is no probability of his coming. 他不会来。Do you think there is no longer any probability that I shall see him again? 你以为我不再有可能见到他吗?There is every probability that he will not come. 他颇有不来的可能。What are the probabilities? The probability is that he will come. 希望如何?大概他会来的。



第三章 订购

不像推销和报价,定购是更普遍的例行手续。有时候买卖双方经电话、传真或电邮先谈妥了,也要借此书面形式确认一下,以免发生差错。书面的订购信有三个优点┱

*
订购书信事先印好,事先编号,故而容易查阅;
*
重要的细节不易被忽略;
*
一般订购的条件可以印在订单背面。
书面订购的信件最重要的要素就是准确和清晰。不准确或不清晰日后都易导致麻烦或严重误会。那么,如何达到准确和清晰呢?请遵守下列各条原则┱

*
物品的名称、性质、价格、报价表的编号均应列入;
*
切记运货须知┱时间地点、运输方式、保险情况及付款方式;
*
确认事先议定的付款条目。
一旦买方寄出订单,卖方收到订单时,买卖双方共同遵守订单上的条款才是合法的。同时,买卖双方都有应尽的义务。
买方应遵守┱
*
货物与所订条款相符,买方应接受所买之货;
*
货到之时即应付款,除非合同上另有记载;
*
尽速验收货物,如不能及时检查,发生错误应视为买方已收妥该货。
卖方应遵守┱
*
依照双方约定的时间送到所订之货;
*
保证买方在收货时对没能发现的错误负责;
*
如遇寄货错误,卖方须保证买方有权要求减价、换货、甚至取消订单,亦可声明要求赔偿损失。
标准的订货单都是简短而正式的,但必须包括必要的细节,如货物名称、装运条款和付款方式等。包含两种或两种以上货物的订单宜列成表格,以便减少因疏忽而导致的错误。

第一节
译题┱
非常高兴获得贵司的订单。它代表了本司与贵司的第一宗交易。本司认为,我们高质量的商品在像贵司这样时髦的商店里,应由很好的销路。
译例┱

We want to tell you how pleased we were with your order because it represents our first dealing with you. We have always felt that our high quality merchandise should have a ready sale in a fashionable shop like yours.
译解┱

Dealing
,交易。表示交易的词还有business, trade 以及transaction等。与之相关的词语还有┱cash transaction, 现金交易;credit transaction, 赊账交易。Make a deal, 做成一笔交易。Trade fair or commodities fair, 商品交易会。A dirty political deal, 肮脏的政治交易。Never barter away principles, 决不拿原则做交易。I have no dealings with him. 我和他没有来往。This company has extensive dealings with all the world. 这家公司又极其广泛的世界贸易。Deal 作动词有经营之意。如┱He deals in books, furniture, hardware, spices, tea and textiles. 他经营书籍、家具、五金、香料、茶叶和纺织品。I deal at his shop. 我到他的店内去进行交易。We deal with that firm. 我们与那家公司有生意往来。Dealer, 商人。He is a dealer in fish, fruit, clothes and second-hand books. 他是一名鱼商、水果商、服装商和旧书商。He is a retail and wholesale dealer in corn. 他是谷物零售商和批发商。

第二节
译题┱
由于收到贵司订单为时已晚,本司无法保证可在下星期五之前交货。然而,我们会将贵司的货物以铁路交运。这样将比等下一班卡车转运早抵达贵司。
译例┱

We cannot guarantee delivery by next Friday as your order was received too late for this week’s dispatch, but we are putting your goods on rail, and they will reach you more quickly than if we wait for the next van delivery.
译解┱

1
Despatch, 等于dispatch, 发送。I dispatched him a telegram. 我给他发了一个电报。The messenger was dispatched to my parents. 该邮差被打发到我父母那儿去了。Despatch 还有赶快了结事情的意思。如┱He shows ability in the dispatch of business. 他显示出赶办急事的能力。They concluded the negotiation with dispatch.他们谈判结束得很快。此外,还有急信公文之意。如┱He received a New York cable dispatch. 他收到一封来自纽约的电报。The letter was sent by dispatch. 该信用快递寄出。与despatch意思相同或相近的词还有sendforward. Send, 送,意味极广。如说┱送信、送小包、送东西。还有作差遣解,如差遣使者等。He sent it to me.他把它送给我。He sent it to me. 这是美国说法。He sent it me. 这是英国说法。Forward, 发送,运送。比如说发送或运送信件、小包、物品等。These goods are to be forwarded. 这些货物必须发运出去。

2
Putting your goods on rail, 以铁路交运货物。此持的put on 没有穿、戴之意,其内在含义是将某物托交或推诿给某人。

第三节
译题┱
本公司曾经两度去函催促交货,然而贵公司未能于要求的日期内装运。于此我们不得不取消此订单。实属遗憾。
译例┱

We have already written to you twice urging dispatch, and as you have failed to deliver these goods on the date asked, we are obliged, very regretfully, to cancel this order.
译解┱

Urge,
催促。表示这个意思的还有hasten, hurry, press. He hastened me to write him a letter. 他催我给他写一封信。Go and hurry him up. 去催他一下。They pressed us to ship the goods as soon as possible.他们催我尽快装货。此外还有expedite, speed up等。Expedite 有加快(进程)和促进(措施)等之义。That will expedite the matter. 那将加速事情的进展。The spring wind speeds the greening of the plants. 春风催绿。Speed the process of digestion, 促进消化作用。Speed the construction pace, 加快建设步伐。现在再回过头来看一看urge. 催促之义外,还有一些别的意思,诸如┱推进、强求、怂恿等。请看┱urge an argument, 极力陈说。urge a fact on one’s attention, 力劝某人注意某某事。I urge him to an explanation. 我强迫他说。He urged his horse forward.他策马前进。I urged him on. 我激励他。He urged his flight southwards.他急忙向南方逃避。I urged upon him that he must persevere. 我力劝他要忍耐。 这句话还可以这样说┱I urged upon him the necessity of perseverance. or “I urged him to persevere.” or “I said that he must persevere.” I urged him to resign. 我力劝他辞职。He urged me to come. 他力请我来。Please do not urge or press me to eat anything more. 请不要再劝我吃了。

第四节

译题┱
依照随函附上的详细项目,我们向您订购中国面料。请注意,货物必须与样品完全相符。如果第一份试订单令人满意,我们将会继续开出大量订单。
译例┱

We have now pleasure in sending you an order for the Chinese fabrics as per the particulars enclosed. Kindly note that the goods are to be delivered in exact accordance with the samples. If this first trial order turns out satisfactory and of good value, large an increasing business may result.
译解┱

Note,
注意。Pay attention to methods of work, 注意工作方法。Care must be taken to unite with all those that can be united with. 必须团结一切可以团结的人. I didn’t notice when he came in. 我没有注意他是何时进来的。Look out! We are ready to last. 注意!马上就要点炮了。Attention, 注意力。Matters needing attention or points for attention, 注意事项。此外,还有notice drawn … attention to 等。在notice, pay attention to, draw … attention to之间有些区别。Notice注意到认识到解,表示注意的结果。例如┱He didn’t notice me entering .他没有看到我进来。I didn’t notice any difference between the two. 我没有注意到这两者之间有什么不同。Pay attention to, 注意和留心的意思,表示注意的过程。例如┱Please pay attention to this difficult point. 请注意这个难点。He does not pay much attention to his work. 他不大注意自己的工作。Draw …attention to 引起。。。注意解。例如┱I should like to draw your attention to the meaning of this paragraph. 我要提醒你们注意这一段的意思。

第五节
译题┱
敬谢贵司85日惠予订单一份,购买5000码棉布。但是,由于最近要求此种面料的订单过多,本司未能从仓库马上交货。然而我们的承制厂商已经答应,7天之内即可补充货物。本司相信,即使贵司答应延长期限,也将不会导致任何不便。
译例┱

We thank you for order of August 5, for 5,000 yds. Cotton piece goods but regret that we are unable to execute the order from stock, owing to the heavy demand recently for these fabrics. Our suppliers have, however, undertaken to replenish our stock within seven days and we trust that it will not be inconvenient for you to allow us this extension.

译解┱

Execute,
完,执行。与此相似的词还有不少,请参看下面数例┱finish, complete, accomplish, end, achieve, effect, fulfill, discharge. 试分析其间的区别如下┱

*finish:
完结。此词是to bring to an end之意。常兼含最后完工的意思。如to finish a picture or a letter 等,它所指的完成通常是很细微的,而且又是外表的部分,不过它的意义与complete不同。此外,finish所指的只是完成日常的琐事,而achieve所指的是伟大的功绩。不过清注意┱已经完了的意味在英国多用finish,而在美国则多用through. 如┱我已做完那件工作。I have finished that job.(英语)I am through with that job.(美语)

*complete
┱完成。比finish较为正式的用语,指把缺少的部分加上去的完成,用在关于整个的理想、计划和实行诸方面。在这点上与finish的意义不同。例如建筑完工,可用complete,而一件事的完结只能用finish

*accomplish,
做成,成就。此字是working toward the end (以结束为目标的完成)之义。指实现一项计划。
以上这三个词大体的情况是┱complete就所做结果而言;accomplish就所做的整个历程而言。比如说,成就一定的计划、志愿、目的、事件、旅行等。

*end,
终了。这是一个最单纯和最不一定的用语。比如说我们这个世界在天地创造的最后一日已经finish,但直至今日却尚未end. 不过,既然已经有一个开端,那就必定有一个end. 一件事,很可能永远不能finishcomplete, 但迟早总要end.

*achieve,
成遂。指在困难的情况下成就的意思,暗示着困难重大的意味。例如说,成遂夙愿、目的、计划、大事业等。

*effect,
完成。有不怕反抗或阻碍而完成某事的意味。与accomplish十分相似。

*execute:
实现,旅行。现在再回过头来说execute effect之间的区别。Effect, 着眼所做事情的全部而言,而execute则着眼所做事情得到最后阶段。再者,execute所指的通畅是受他人之命的事情,有时又知行动的方式。例如说┱履行计划、企图目的、职务、阴谋、法律和上司命令等。

*fulfill,
履行。指履行所命令、所期待、所希望的事,含有义务的意味。例如说,利履责任、义务、职务、债务等。



第四章 资信调查

在商界,除了商业书信之外,最常用,而又最重要的商业文件要算是信用证了。Credit一词由拉丁文 credo而来。字面上的意思是我相信。今天引申为卖方相信买方在指定时间之内对所购货物有付款能力,所指定的时间一般来说是30天,也有长达60天或90天的。这要依据买主是批发还是零售的性质而定。
更确切一些说,信用证通常是指┱由购货人向所在地的银行申请发给售货人。其中要说明购货人同意付款给售货人或受益人,但必须符合所规定的各种条件。信用证由银行根据顾客的请求开出,使售货人对购货人加强信心。
我们从这段文字可以看出以下事实┱
1
. 信用证大多由购货人直接请求银行开立,也有由买方先向卖方提供一家征信银行(征求咨询信用的银行)名称地址,要求他们向这家银行咨询买方的信用情况。
2
. 开出信用证的银行根据账户来往情况提供有利或不利的数据,信用证被列为机密文件。
3
. 购货人受到货物后,见到与信用证规定的条件完全相符,才让银行将货款付给售货人。有了这种保障,可以使交易更加顺利稳妥。
4
. 开立信用证的银行通知国外联行依据条件付款;售货人只需条件相符,即可取得货款。
由于某些买卖双方过去并无来往,如果没有银行居中服务,就难以互相信赖,因此信用证除买卖双方各自负责之外,银行业因此而承担起大部分风险。

第一节

译题┱
关于下列公司的信用状况、社会地位和财力情况,如能得到贵公司指教,将不胜感激。
译例┱

We shall appreciate your providing us with an opinion as to the credit standing, respectability and responsibility of the following firm:
译解┱

Provide,
提供,供应。除此之外还可作准备预备等解。It is wise to provide against accident. 预防万一是明智的。He has provided will for the children.他已为子女的生活做好准备。We are well provided with clothing. 我们的衣服齐备无缺。You should provide against the evil day. 你应对不幸的日子常备不患。He has a large family to provide for. 他要供应一个人口众多的家庭。We must be provided with food for the journey. 我们必须把旅行所需的食品准备好。请注意辨别provide for provide against. Provide for, 为什么事情而准备;养活。如┱We must provide passport for the journey. 我们必须为旅行准备好护照。Provide against, 为什么而预防。特指预防意外,诸如灾难、恶劣天气等。如┱We must provide against accident. 我们应该预防事故。

第二节

译题┱
我们很乐意以赊购方式供应贵公司货物。然而,这是我方首次和贵方作交易,特请贵司告知贵方往来银行以及一两家公司,以供我方参考。
译例┱

We shall be very happy to supply you with goods on credit. However, as this is the first time we have done business with you, we would ask you to let us have the name and address of your bank and one or two firms to enable us to apply for references.
译解┱

Apply for,
申请。For further particulars or details or information, please apply to the agent or at the following address. 若想知道较多的情况,请向代理人或下面的地址询问。He is applying for an appointment. 他请求录用。He apply to them for assistant.他请求他们帮助。The rule does not apply to this case. 这条规则不适于此事。He applied a match to gun-powder.他用火柴点火药。Apply in your own handwriting. 请亲笔写信请求。He applied himself closely to the study of English. 他专心研究英语。I applied to him for information. 我向他探听消息。Apply by letter to Mr. Wang. 请用信件方式向王先生请求。If you have any difficulty, apply to me. 倘若你有任何困难,可找我帮助。He applied his mind to business.他专心于业务。This house is to let, apply next door.这房子出租,可向邻居询问。He applied to the manager for pardon. 他向经理请求原谅。Apply in person to…, 向某人接洽。也可以说apply personally to …The money was applied to the payment of debts. 该款项被用于付款。He applied a rule. 他应用一条规则。The same applies to…对于什么也是如此。She applied for a position as teacher. 她谋求教职。

第三节
译题┱
开一新账户时,敝公司有一例行公事,即向客户要求商业证明人。因此,特请贵公司寄来两家与贵公司有贸易往来者的字号和地址。
译例┱

When opening a new account it is our practice to ask customers for trade references. Will you therefore please send us the names and addresses of two other suppliers with whom you have dealings?
译解┱

Reference
,此词意思很多。其中之一就是本段文字中的意思,即信用、能力等的证明人。请看其它用法。一般来讲,是作关于、谈到(和介词to连用)解。1. with reference to in reference to 同义,多用于句子开头。以前者较普通,with in 也可以省略。With In reference to payment, we cannot do otherwise than L/C at sight.关于付款,我们除见票即付的信用证之外,其它不接受。2. make reference to…谈到、参考。In your letter, you have made reference to discount. 你在信中谈到折扣问题。Please make reference to Term 8 of our agreement. 请参阅我们的协议第八条。3. without reference to --- 不论、不管。We do not think it right to compare prices without reference to quality. 我们认为只是比较价格而不顾及质量是不妥的。4. for one’s reference, 供某人参考。For your reference we enclose an analysis of the test we have made. 兹附上化验结果一份,供你参考。We shall appreciate it if you will send some up-to-date patterns for our reference. 如果寄给我们一些最新花样作参考,将不胜感激。5. (信用证、能力等的)见证人。Their reference is the Bank of China. 证明者是中国银行。(他们的信用可由中国银行证明。)
第四节
译题┱
该冻死于1950年组建时,资金为800000美元,现业已增至1亿美元。今年2月他们公告之资产负债表显示,净获益大约100000美元。他们有足够资金支付此笔开销。
译例┱

This company was organized in 1950 with a capital of US$800,000 and it has now increased to one million US dollars. Their balance sheet published in February this year indicates net profit at approximately US$100,000. They have enough money to pay for this shipment.
译解┱

Profit
, 名词┱利润、利益。 They accepted the offer to start the ball rolling, disregarding profit. 他们接受这个报盘,仅为做一个开端,并不计较利润。We gained profit from the experience. 经验使我们获得益处。动词┱(指人)获益,(指物)有利于。We believe you will profit by confining your offers to a limited number of firms. 我们相信你们将报盘集中于少数几家商号是有益的。Such an arrangement does not profit either part. 这样一种安排对双方都没有好处。He bent solely upon profit. 他专图获利。This new paper has a clear profit of 1,000 dollars a day on advertisement alone. 这家报纸单在广告方面每天就有一千元的纯利。No profit will come in. 无利可获。There will certainly be a profit in the end. 最后一定可以获利。He has a profit on everything he sells. 他所卖的东西都获利。I hope to sell them at a good profit.我希望能以厚利将它们卖掉。He makes a profit. 他获利了。He does his work for personal profit. 他工作起来仅仅是为了个人的私利。It is sold at a profit of twenty cents. 它以赚两角钱的利润卖出去了。I have not made any profit by the silk trade this year. 今年我不曾靠丝绸生意获利。I hope to profit from your advice. 我希望能从你的劝告中获益。 You may profit by the example of others. 你可以从别人的榜样中获益。It will not profit him. 它不会使他获益。You should profit by every opportunity of speaking English. 你应利用每次说英语的机会。What will it profit him? 这对他有何益处?

第五节

译题┱
贵城的史密斯公司意欲与我方开一账户,故已将贵公司的宝号通知我方,以作为被询人。请寄来贵公司两份征信资料,因为迄今我方仍未与贵公司有过任何交易。
译例┱

Messrs. Smith & Co., in your city, desire to open an account with us, and have given your name as a reference. Will you favor us with two references, as we have hitherto had no business transaction with you.
译解┱

Messrs. Smith & Co.
,为何史密斯公司前面要加Messrs., 有的公司就不加?原因是史密斯公司的名称是由人名构成的,就这样简单。假如不是由人名,而是别的样式,比如红星公司,只写Red-star Co.即可。那么Messrs.是什么意思呢?就是先生,是Mr.的复数形式。而Messrs.则是法语词Messieurs的缩写。再者,Messrs.既然能是复数形式,那就要记住句子谓语不要用单数。最后,Messrs.经常用缩写形式┱M/S,因此Messrs. Smith & Co.可以,而且经常写成M/S Smith & Co.

Open an account
,开立一个账户。account有较多的说法。名词和动词形式相同。先看名词。1。账目,帐(略缩a/c),外贸书信中常见的短语有┱for one’s account, 由某人支付。We bought the goods for the account of Messrs. Peterson & Co.这些货物是我们代彼得森公司购买的。We bought the goods for our own account.这些货物是我们自己购买的。The additional charges will be for our account.附加费由我方承担。The additional charges are to be for your account. 附加费由你方承担。The extra freight is to be for buyers’ account.额外运费由买方承担。2。理由,原因(on account of,由于,因为)。We cannot accept fresh orders on account of heavy sales.由于大量售出,我们不能接受新订单。On account of lack of direct steamer, please allow transshipment in your L/C. 因为没有直达轮船,请在你的信用证中注明准许转船。On account of difference in taste, your designs do not suit this market. 由于趣味不同,你的图案不适于此间市场。The price dropped on account of large offerings from other sources. 由于来自其它方面的大量报盘,价格已经下跌。3。考虑(take…into account, 对。。。加以考虑或注意)。Price is not the only factor; you have to take the quality into account. 价格不是唯一因素,你方也必须考虑到质量。We agree to your request, taking into account our good relations. 考虑到我们之间良好的关系,我们同意你方的要求。动词可作解释和说明解。We cannot account for the delay. 我们无法解释延迟的原因。It is difficult to account for this sharp price. 对价格的急剧上升,很难解释。还可作解,指多少数量的百分比。Cotton accounts for 70% of their exports. 棉花占他们出口的百分之七十。4。认为。I account him a good teacher. 我认为他是一位好教师。

第五章: 装运
出运货物书信大都由卖方主动发出,把货物包装妥当运交航运公司,通知买方,通常附有文件、装船名称、包装情况、出运日期、保险情形等项目。万一装船情况不甚理想,运货遗失,要求赔偿,必须在某地换船,或船期延误,亦应立即函告买方作应变之策,例如及时改装其它船只,延期收货,有时亦涉及到修改信用证或取消订单等情况。如果遇到此事而双方不都不便的情况,别忘记礼貌地请求对方体谅彼此的难处,同时设法立即谋求补救之道。而买方在收到卖方的书信之后,也应将提货的情况尽快使对方知道,并完成付款的手续,或安排买方提货。
第一节
译题┱
恳请即刻回信告知我方,对此次运往开罗6箱货品的详细数量、价格、收货人以及一切
费用应由何人支付。
译例┱

Please send us by return full instructions for the six cases for Cairo, as
to contents, value, consignee and who pays all the charges.
译解┱

*consignee:
收货人。
*charge
1
。名词┱费用,常用复数。Extra charges, 额外费用。Handing charges, 经手费
用。Storage charges, 存储费用。Processing charges, 加工费用。在类似下面的一
些句子里,charge用单数. There is no charge for the sample. / The samples
are free of charge.
样品不收费用。Samples will be sent free of charge.样品免
费寄送。If you require individual packing for the gloves, there will be a
charge US$200.00...
如果你需要手套按副包装,费用是500美元。
2
。动词┱记账,收费。Please charge the samples to our account. 请将样品费用
记在我们的帐上。You may charge us the expenses incurred. 所需费用可向我方索
取。We have charged your account the sum of US$500.00.我们记在你方帐上500
元。
第二节
译题┱
请务必将该批货物于下周五以前交由美貌轮运抵新加坡为荷。同时,对该货物,以不担保单独海损为条件,投保2000美元的保险。
译例┱

The packages should be forwarded to Singapore for shipment per m.s. “Good
Look” not later than Friday next, and insured for US$2,000.00, F.P.A.
译解┱

*package,
本为包装。此处指一批货物。
*forward
,动词,寄发货物,发货。
*per m.s. XX
,装上某轮。per为装的意思。m.s.motor ship 摩托轮,机动轮的缩写
.
*F.P.A.
┱是free from particular average “不担保单独海损(即平安险)的缩
写。
其中average为商业用语海损

第三节
译题┱
该批货物重量为75吨,价值600美元。请以本公司名义向海关报关。
译例┱

Please clear through the customs, making entry in our name, and declaring
weight at 75 tons, value US$600.00.
译解┱

*clear through the customs,
报关。clear,结清(账目)。customs, 海关。
*declare,
在商务英语中则是向海关申报的意思。declare还有一些其它意思和用
法。其基本意思是陈述、宣言;宣布、呈报(课税品);明言、昭示等。Declare
off,
废止。Declare oneself, 抒发己见;表现真相。They declared with one
accord that the loan as proposed could not be considered.
他们一致宣称不能考
虑所拟借款。They declared against for the decision. 他们宣布反对(赞成)这
个决定。He declared his belief and his opinion. 他宣布他的信仰和意见。He
was declared emperor.
他被宣布为皇帝。We declared him an enemy to
humankind.
我们宣布他为人类仇敌。He was declared an enemy by the people.
被人民宣布为敌。The judge declared him guilty. 法官宣布他有罪。Japan
declared war on Russia.
日本对俄宣战。

第四节
译题┱
随函附上棉布100包的清单一份。此事是依照贵公司106日订单办理的。我们已于本人装载该货于海鸟号船上,该轮拟于明日开航。至于付款方式,请将支付本地付款的汇票寄给我们。
译例┱

Enclosed please find an invoice for 100 bales of cotton fabrics which, according to your order of the 6th Oct., we have shipped today in good condition on board the steamer “Sea Bird”, sailing tomorrow. As to the payment for them, please send us a draft payable in this city.
译解┱

Condition,
名词。1。情况。In good condition, in sound condition, in perfect condition, in bad condition, in poor condition, in a damaged condition, in a moldy condition. 一般来讲,笼统地说好与坏,形容词前面不用不定冠词,如说得具体一些,要加不定冠词。The goods arrived in good condition.货物达到时情况良好。The goods arrived in a moldy condition. 货物达到时已经发霉了。2。形势,环境(用复数)。Under In present condition, it would be better to wait and see. 在目前情况下最好等等再说。Conditions are not favorable. 情况有(不)利。Conditions are likely to become better worse.情况可能会好转(恶化)。Buyers have withdrawn from the market on account of change in conditions. 由于情况变化,买主已经推出市场。3。条件。在on condition that (只有在这样的条件下)这一习语中,condition 前面一般不用定冠词,但是如果加上形容词则必须有定冠词。如┱on the express condition that ---They make it a condition that you should ship the goods by a fast steamer. 你应将该货用快轮装运,他们以此为条件。Please renew your offer on same condition. 请按照同样条件重新报盘。We accept your offer on the express condition that you agree to pack the goods in small cases. 只有你方同意将此货装在小箱内,在这一(明确)条件下,我们才能接受你的报盘。


第五节
译题┱
遵照贵公司330日之订单,本公司已经通过夫曼公司运送100包棉花至贵公司。于此,同函奉上金额7,000美元之发货清单一张,请记入敝公司货方帐。
译例┱

According to your order of the 30th March, we have sent you, through Foreman Co., 100 bales of cotton, and have enclosed an invoice for same amounting US$7,000.00 which amount please credit to our account.
译解┱

Enclose,
动词。随函,附在信里。We enclose a copy of our price-list. 随函附上价目表一份。Enclosed is a copy of our price-list.(同上)Enclosed please find a copy of our price-list. (同上)The market report was enclosed with in our letter of August 21.市场报告是附在我方821日信函内寄出的。We thank you for your letter of June 15 enclosing a cutting of woolen material. 谢谢贵方615日的信,内附呢(绒)料剪样一块。We enclose you a list of quotations. 随函附寄报价单一纸。注意┱常在enclose后面加上herewith, 但最好不用,因为意思重复。另外,enclosed 是过去分词,还可以作名词用。如┱We believe you will find the enclosed interesting. 我们相信贵方对所附之件会感兴趣。Enclosure, 名词,指附件。We thank you for your letter of April 15 with enclosures. 谢谢你415日的来函及附件。

第六章 付款及催款

买方收到货物的同时也是付款的时候,付款方式有多种。付现金、付汇票、支票、赊欠、或是由押汇银行付款,都要说清楚。但是,有的时候可能有人从你那里买了东西,却没有办法立即付款,而你偏偏希望他立即付款,这就要准备写一封索款书信了。

要想把索款信写好,必须注意一些要点。比如,要写得让读者感到你正和言悦色,乐观且有信心。不可轻易怀疑顾客或欠款人是故意不付钱。也许对方有他暂时的苦衷,不得已而不能立即付款。一封索款书信能解他人之危也未可知。比如说,你可以大开方便之门,允许他暂时延期付款或分期付款。因此,一封成功的索款书信具有双重目的:1。达到索款的目的;2。保持与顾客的友好关系。那么着手些一封索款书信时要注意些什么呢?

态度要诚恳。虽然索款是我们想要达到的目标,字里行间要流露出关心对方的难处,希望能帮助他解决问题之类的诚意。表示诚意最好的方法之一就是避免使用浮华的辞藻。如:beg to advise favor with a remittance. 避免过分的客套,如terribly sorry, dreadfully upset, awfully glad 等字样。适当地使用please, kindly, thank you, 是不会使人讨厌的。

用词要得当。一般来讲,能体现乐观、有信心、为顾客着想的言辞,都可以帮助你达到预期的目的。有些情况使用的语言要表现出温和、宽大、慷慨的态度;另外一些情况,则需要采取强硬、严肃的言辞。这些原则虽然简单,但使用起来并不十分容易,要注意根据具体情况来灵活处理,所谓运用之妙,存乎一心,就是这个道理。总之,既要尽量收取欠款,又要使你的顾客保持快乐的情绪,只有这样,双方才能保持良好的关系,从而达到双赢的目的。

第一节

译题:

到今日止,敝公司应收之款尚欠两万元。兹奉上决策通知书一纸,敬请查收。

译例:

Enclosed we hand you a statement of account to date, showing a balance of $ 20,000 in our favor, which we trust will be found in order.

译解:

Statement: 清单,报表。Favor(名词) : 欢迎,赞许。Chinese commodities have enjoyed growing favor among buyers abroad. 中国商品在国外受到越来越多的欢迎。They looked with favor on your sample shipment. 你发来的样货得到他们的称许。The letter of credit has been opened in your favor.信用证已经开给你方名下。

Favor(动词) : 有利于。This case does not favor our making a binding arrangement.

这一情况不便于我们做出一项有约束性的安排。Favor 形容词形式为 favorable.1)赞成的,有帮助的,有利的(后接介词to)。We are favorable to your proposal.

我们同意你的建议。A deep understanding will be favorable to our business. 深刻的了解对我们的业务有利。The market has so changed as to be favorable to the sellers (buyers).市场变为对卖方(买方)有利。2。有助于或有利于某种行为(后接介词for)。The time is not favorable for the disposal of the goods.现在不是卖货的有利时机。We had better wait till the opportunity is favorable for discussing this matter. 我们最好还是等到有利时机再讨论此事。

第二节

译题:

兹附上账目明细表一份。账款日期至2007630日,并连同是日在内。贵公司当可明了,其中尚有差额计350元,系应支付本公司者。倘蒙早日结付,实为感激。

译例:

We enclose a statement of account, made up to and including the 30th June, 2007, from which you will observe that there is a balance in our favor of $350. And early settlement would be appreciated.

译解:

Statement: 此处指“明细表”。

Observe: 动词。(1)观察。We trust you will observe changes in your market and keep us advised. 我们相信贵方将注意观察当地市场变化,并随时告知我方。(2)遵守。We always observe our contractual obligations (our commitments).我们一向遵守合约规定(承担的事项)。(3)说,评述。We would observe that this is only a temporary phenomenon. 我们愿意说,这只是一个暂时现象。We would observe that your request is a bit out of the way..我们愿意说,贵方的要求有些不妥。名词形式为observation, 观察。We give below our observation on the conditions here.下面是我们对此间情况的观察报告。

第三节

译题:

敝公司于75日去函催告付款,迄今犹未获复函,故特此再催告一番,贵公司应付之款为$95.67. 无疑其中必有原因。恳请函复解释并尽早汇款。

译例:

Not having received any reply to our letter of 5th July requesting settlement of the above account, we are writing again to remind you that the amount still owing is $95.67. No doubt there is some special reason for the delay in payment and we should welcome an explanation and also your remittance.

译解:

Settlement, 名词。解决;清偿。We hope we can reach an amicable settlement before long. 我们希望我们不久能够达成和解。We enclose a check in settlement of all commissions owing.我们附去支票一纸清偿所欠全部佣金。Settle, 动词。1。解决,结束。The question (problem, issue, dispute, argument) has been settled. 这个问题(难题,争端,争执,争论)已经解决了。The matter has been hanging fire for some four months. It must be settled soon. 这件事已经拖延四个月了,必须迅速解决。Of course, we prefer to settle the claim by amicable means instead of resorting to arbitration. 当然我们宁愿采取和解办法以解决此项索赔,而不诉诸仲裁。2。偿付。Please settle this long outstanding account without further delay. 请偿付这笔长期未清的帐目,勿再拖延。Our D/note (debit note) No. 40 is still unsettled. Please send remittance to cover. 我们第40号借方通知仍未得到偿付,请将款项汇来清账。3。平静下来。The excitement of the market has settled down. 市场的骚动已经平静下来。We prefer to wait until the chaotic market conditions on your side have settled. 我们宁愿等待你处混乱的市场平静下来再说。

第四节

译题:

贵方未函复敝公司10日及23日两度的催款函件。敝公司殊感惊讶及遗憾。催告之款项为1,256美元,应与上月28日结清。贵我双方过去交往很令人满意。对于贵司现今仍未能付款或提出解释一事,实感失望。

译例:

We are both surprised and disappointed not to have heard from you in answer to our two letters of 10th and 23rd March reminding you to the balance of $1,256.00 still owing on our statement of 28th February. This failure either to clear your account or even to offer an explanation is all the more disappointing because of our past satisfactory dealings over many years.

译解:

Disappointed, 失望的。Disappoint,动词:使失望,挫折,妨碍。He was disappointed of the steamer. 他因船没有来而失望。He was disappointed at every turn. 他每次都失望。I am disappointed in him. 我对他失望。I have been disappointed my hope. 我已经失望了。He was disappointed in love. 他失恋了。I am disappointed with my work. 我对我的工作不满意。I am disappointed of the prize. 我对得奖已不抱任何希望。We are disappointed that we are unable to win. 我们因为不能获胜而失望。He disappointed me of a visit. 他不来看我,这使我很失望。

请看下面三个词组的区别:disappointed at; disappointed in; disappointed of. disappointed at, 对(所见所闻)感到失望。如:I was disappointed at the result. 我对那结果感到失望。disappointed in, 对(得到的东西)感到失望。如:I disappointed in our new teacher. 我对这位新教师感到失望。disappointed of, 对(得不到的东西)感到失望。如:I was disappointed of the prize. 我没有获奖,感到失望。He is disappointed of his hopes. 他的希望落空,为此感到失望。

第五节

译题:

贵公司已蒙敝公司予以宽厚处理,本函系最后通牒。如果贵公司在复函时仍未偿付应付款项,本公司为如期收缴款项,将采取其他措施。

译例:

As you seem to take advantage of our leniency in this matter, we now give you the final notice that, unless we shall receive a substantial amount on account by return of post, we shall adopt other measures for its recovery.

译解:

Recovery, 名词,恢复。A quick recovery of the cotton market is generally expected. 一般都预料棉花市场将迅速恢复。动词形式为recover. The wool market is recovering. 羊毛市场正在恢复。The wool market has recovered from its earlier weakness (a steep downslide). 羊毛市场已经从前些时候的疲软(急剧下降)恢复过来。The wool market has recovered its usual briskness. 羊毛市场已经恢复了平时的活跃。

Recover 的近义词还有restorerecuperate. Recover, 恢复。指用自己的力量及能力恢复原状。例如恢复失去的财产、物资、土地、领土、力量、健康、食欲、爱情、自由、官位、王位等。用作及物动词或不及物动词均可。He has recovered from his illness.(不及物动词)他已经痊愈。He has recovered his health. (及物动词)它已恢复健康。Restore, 恢复,指用他人之力恢复原状。Recover 是能动性用语,而 restore 则是被动性用语。比较:

His health was recovered by him. 他恢复了自己的健康。His health was restored to him. 他人使他恢复了健康。Recuperate, 恢复。指从疲劳、疾病、损失中恢复来,大体上和recover 同义,及物和不及物皆可。如:The doctor recuperated the patient. 医生使病人复原了。He recuperated his health. 他恢复了健康。以上诸例中recuperate为及物动词。He recuperated from a minor ailment. 他小病后复原。这个句子中recuperate则是不及物动词。

第七章 索赔

 

索款的情形通常是卖方专门针对卖方收到货后延迟付款而谋求的解决之策。而索赔,则通常针对买主对于运到的货物有所不满而发。Claim 一词原意为声明某人的权利。如运到的货物与原来的样品、订单所载要求不同,或运货途中因故而致使货物数量不足,导致损毁,买方依法能享有索赔之权。索赔固然有直接经法律途径谋求解决方法的,然而无奈费时、费钱,倒不如先向卖方直接提出意见。记住,索赔书信要尽早发出,否则过时无效。

索赔书信的内容不外货物未按时运抵,而货价偏高,品质与原样品不符;货物虽然符合要求,但数量却有短缺、多余或损毁现象。这些都是索赔的正当理由。所以,一封索赔书信的开始不妨开门见山,提起原来双方同意的条件,提出对方注意正常情况下应是如何结果,然后提出不满意之处,仔细写出有何不满及如何不满,最后提出补偿的办法。如货物未到则请对方尽快安排发出,短缺的补足,多余的退还,以及其它引起不便之处或损毁的,要根据其程度要求补偿、减价、甚至退还原货或取消交易。

收到一封索赔书信又该如何回复呢?卖方有时乐意听到买方提出的意见,只要他说出的理由是正当的。收到买方索赔的书信,他可以知道真正的原因而有所解释,设法纠正错误或谋求补救。同时也可以保持与顾客的友好关系。与其说顾客永远是对的,毋宁说顾客可能是对的。不过,无论如何,遇到索赔书信的第一大原则就是尽快回复,告诉对方我们正在调查,设法弥补,万一遇到不合理的要求,要以和气的态度,礼貌地指出来,以便求得合理解决。

第一节

译题:

21箱发现5包短缺。因箱子完好无损,没有损坏迹象。我们推测一定是寄少了。请不必麻烦再另寄,但请改正发票。

译例:

Case 21 was found to be 5 packages short. As the case was in good shape and does not appear to have been tampered with, we surmise that they must have been short-shipped. Please do not trouble to send a replacement, but adjust your invoice.

译解:

Trouble, 动词与名词同形。动词可作“打扰和使烦劳”等解。名词可作“麻烦和烦恼”等解。May I trouble you for (or to) ----可否烦君----,敬请----,敬恳----Pray dont trouble. 请勿烦心。To give one trouble (or to give trouble to one). 打扰或烦劳某人。Dont trouble about it. 不要为它而烦恼。Dont trouble yourself about it. (同上)I am troubled with a cough. 我患咳嗽。He came with a troubled countenance. 他面带忧色而来。May I trouble you to shut the door? 可否烦你把门关上? Excuse my troubling you. 原谅我打扰你。I am troubled with a headache. 我患头疼。He is troubled in his mind. He has a troubled mind.)他心中忧虑。May I trouble you for some money? 是否烦你借给我点钱?May I trouble you with a question? 我可以麻烦你回答一个问题吗?He caused her much trouble. 他使她受到不少的烦恼。

第二节

译题:

敝公司发觉运来之货物应为编号VP/56,而非BO/56。我们本想可能是打字员的错误。然而,来货和我方所订购的货物不符,恳请贵公司尽早替换。

译例:

We find that you have sent us an article marked BO/56 instead of the VP/56 we ordered; we take it that this was due to typist’s error, but as the articles sent are not of the type we stock, we must ask for replacement by the correct number as soon as possible.

译解:

Error, 名词:错误。It is a type-graphical error. 那是一个印刷的错误。It is a typing error. 那是一个打字的错误。It is an error on our (your) part.那是我(你)方的错误。We believe an error has been made in the total weight, should it not be 11.200 lbs? 我们相信总重量上有错误,是不是应为11200磅?You are in error about what we meant. 你误解了我们的意思。You are in error in thinking that the price is going to come down. 你认为价格会下降是错误的。You have figured out the commission in error. 你把佣金算错了。The unit price was written in error. 单价写错了。Erroneous,形容词,错误的。It is an erroneous computation. 那是一个计算错误。 It is erroneous to do so. 这样做是错误的。作“错误”解的词除error之外还有mistake blunder. Error 本来用以指印象、判断或计算上的错误,转义而用以指行为上的错误。又指智力和道义上的错误。Mistake 主要指智慧上的错误,和error相同,有时也含有道德上的不正之意。例如说文字上的、用语上的、计算上的、文法上的错误。Blunder,含有较强的蠢笨意味,通常指超乎寻常的错误。

第三节

译题:

贵公司应当明了,我方本来可以撤销全部合约,但这件事关系重大,本公司不愿这样做。然而,本公司享有要求补偿之权利,请贵公司给予补贴,以便解决此事。

译例:

You will recognize that we are accordingly in a position to repudiate the whole contract, but such a drastic step would be must unwelcome to us. It is clear, however, that we are entitled to some compensation, and we should be glad to hear of that allowance you prepared to make to meet the case.

译解:

Allowance, 名词,补偿费、补贴、考虑。We cannot make (grant) any allowance for the loss, which is not due to our fault. 我们对此项损失不能赔偿,那不是我方的过失。As the mistake is ours, we agree to make (grant) an allowance of 2%. 由于这是我们的错误,我们同意付给2%的赔偿费。Buyers claim an allowance of $2000.00 on account of inferior quality. 由于质量不佳,买方索赔2000美元。Allowance should be made for unforeseen circumstances. 应该考虑到意外情况。动词形式为allow. 1。给。We cannot allow more than 2% commission. 我们不能付给超过2%的佣金。In opening L/C, please allow 2% leeway in drawings. 在开信用证时,请给予2%上下的灵活限度。You must allow us some latitude in handling this matter. 在处理此事时,你必须给我们一些灵活范围。2。允许。 Please amend your L/C No. 435 (so as)to read partial shipment allowed. 请将你的435号信用证改为“可以分批装运”。Please amend your L/C No.345 (so as) to allow part shipment. (同上)。Allow as to point out that the account submitted by you is not quite in order. 请允许我们指出,你提交的账目时有些出入的。3allow for ,考虑到,照顾到。We must allow for this possibility.我们必须考虑到这种可能性。Allowing for the difference in quality, the disparity in price should not be so wide.即便考虑到质量上的差异,价格上的差距也不应该那样大。The goods should have reached you by now, allowing for some delay in transit. 即便运输上有些耽搁,该货现在也应该到达你处了。4allow of,容许。The opportunity will soon pass away and allow of no delay. 时机易失,不容迟延。We do not think the statement allows of any other interpretation. 我们认为这个说法不容许有其它解释。

第四节

译题:

为解决索赔问题,我们乐于派遣代表来指导调查事宜。如果我们的职员错了,您可信赖我们纠正错误,如若您选择接受这批货物,则可获得慷慨折扣。

译例:

In order to settle the matter of claim, we should be please to send a representative to conduct an inspection. If our staff is at fault, you may rely on our correcting the error, or making a generous allowance if you choose to take the goods.

译解:

Fault, 名词,过失,瑕疵,缺点等。At fault,迷惑,不知所措。In fault 应负责任的。To find fault with, 向某人非难,挑剔。Without (any) faults, 无误地,确实地。He amended his fault. 他改正错误。I am quite at fault. 我十分迷惑。He is blind to his sons fault. 他对儿子的过错一无所知。She blushed at her own faults. 她为自己的过失而脸红。The manager charged him with a fault. 经理责备他有过失。You have committed a fault. 你已出现一个过失。By others faults wise men correct their own. 聪明人因他人的过失而改正自己的过失。I have no fault to find with your work. 我对于你的工作没有可以挑剔之处。He finds fault with everything I do. 对我所做的一切,他都要吹毛求疵。You have done a gross (or a serious) fault. 你已铸成大错。My memory is at fault. 我记不清了。That happened through no fault of mine. 那件事的发生,我是没有过失的。Fault 的近义词有defect, failing, foible等。Fault, 过失,缺点。指道德方面的过失,又指关于人的性格或习惯上的弱点或缺点。不含贬损之义。Defect,缺陷,缺点。含贬损之义,是个消极性的词。使用于性格时,指虽然完美,但也有缺陷。Failing,缺点,短处。含贬损之义,指在性格或习惯上的弱点或缺点。Foible, 性格上的小缺点,弱点,比defect要轻微,或者是可以一笑了之的怪癖。

第五节

译题:

我们提议立即查看此事,如果查看结果确认您正确,您将立刻获得慷慨赔偿。

译例:

We propose to have the goods inspected immediately. If the inspection confirms the accuracy of your estimate, generous compensation will be allowed at once.

译解:

Estimate, 动词,估计,估价等。The expense is estimated at three million. 这项费用预算300万。It is estimated that five thousand dollars will be appropriated to him. 预计将拨给他五千元。Value estimate的近义词。Estimate, 估计。意味着给一个价值,尤指给予一个不确定的价值。You estimate his worth too highly. 你对他的价值估计过高。Value, 重视。意味着给予较高的估价。He valued the machine at 1,000 dollars.他估计这台机器的价值在一千元。Estimate, 名词,作“估价、评价、意见、判断、预算”解。We need to make an estimate beforehand. 我们须预先预算好。At a rough estimate, 依照大略的计算。Estimation, 名词,作“估价、预算、尊重”解。He comes first in my estimation. 照我看来他数第一。I held him in high estimation. 我很尊重他。He stands high in public estimation. 他深受公众尊重。





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发表评论 评论 (3 个评论)

回复 今又是 2011-8-31 18:40
拜读了。非常耐心细致的作文。应该拿出来让大家参照学习的。谢谢。
回复 宋德利 2011-8-25 06:55
To: 柚子 你曾经说:
首先感谢您的分享。
再者,看着这些FOB,CIF之类的很亲切,我以前也接触过这些,许久不用,都快忘光了。
前几天忙着整理房子,没时间总上网,今天终于得闲,沏杯茶,上上网,看看文,感觉好极了

谢谢来访并耐心阅读这些枯燥无味的东西。你不是说喜欢看伍尔夫的文章吗。我刚发了一本书稿。你可以去看啊。就是因为你说喜欢看的。我才发的。
回复 柚子 2011-8-25 06:32
首先感谢您的分享。
再者,看着这些FOB,CIF之类的很亲切,我以前也接触过这些,许久不用,都快忘光了。
前几天忙着整理房子,没时间总上网,今天终于得闲,沏杯茶,上上网,看看文,感觉好极了

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