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人生苦涩,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达

已有 5825 次阅读2011-9-16 00:29 |个人分类:大都会博物馆分享到微信

——大都会小故事之 13

人生苦涩,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达_图1-1

    尘世间蕴藏着人间的一切繁华,尘世间充满着所有的悲欢离合,和酸甜苦辣。

    即使穿上了和尚的衣服,未必就能看破红尘。

    苦瓜和尚,无论他的苦瓜自号,还是300多年之后正在大都会博物馆被展示的那些心血画作,泄露了他的人生秘密。

    尤其是,他的作品和嬉笑怒骂哭之笑之的八大山人作品以及其他“遗民”的作品并列一室,更能让观者感叹人生的无奈。


    明末清初,中国历史上心灵最为动荡的阶段之一。1644年,满族旗人的大清国顺治皇帝进入北京城,成了天朝大国的统治者。

    朱姓明皇朝本来在李自成兵临城下之时已经走向末日,大清国官兵随后紧追而来。战火纷飞之后江山变色,明朝的皇公贵族、政府公务员前途何在?

    有倪元璐,当李自成陷京师,元璐整衣冠拜阙,大书几上曰:“南都尚可为。死,吾分也,勿以衣衾敛。暴我尸,聊志吾痛。”遂南向坐,取帛自缢而死。

    亦有黄道周,兴兵抗清,最后被俘,壮烈而死。

    “苦瓜和尚”石涛原名朱若极,本是明朝皇室宗亲,由于明亡,隐姓埋名出家为僧。

    这很不安分的和尚,游遍大江南北,写下了“搜尽奇峰打草稿”等许多名句,留下了许多黄山胜景的山水画,因画而著名,两次受到康熙皇帝接见,追求艺术以及功名利禄之心并未泯灭。

    遗憾的是,尽管石涛怎么努力,无论他的画怎么出色,还是没有得到满清朝廷的重用。

    据说石涛后来遇到比他大了十几岁的“八大山人”朱耷,同为明朝皇室宗亲朱家后裔,八大那种冷眼白眼观世以及哭之笑之的人生态度,让石涛感受到巨大的震动,一番心灵激荡之后,石涛隐居在“大涤子堂”,学习陶渊明,不再争强好胜。

    石涛留下了一本《苦瓜和尚画语录》,成为许多画人以及理论家的借鉴。

    石涛留下了很多画,这是其中的一幅,题为

    ——这个苦瓜,老涛就吃了一生。

    一个感叹,一声发自心灵深处的呼喊,那种悲凉,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达。

    这幅画,应该是石涛晚年作品,看来,石涛虽然出家为僧,内心依然无法清静。滚滚红尘,还是无法看破。人生苦涩,只能自己慢慢体会。

人生苦涩,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达_图1-2
(图片:大都会博物馆提供)

倪元璐、黄道周、石涛、八大等明朝遗民书画特展,正在纽约大都会博物馆亚洲部展出。

《明代遺民的無聲抗議:至樂樓收藏明清書畫名品》 2011年9月7日至2012年1月2日。


来自大都会博物馆网站:www.metmuseum.org 的展览信息:

The Art of Dissent in 17th-Century China: Masterpieces of Ming Loyalist Art from the Chih Lo Lou Collection
September 7, 2011–January 2, 2012
Galleries for Chinese Painting and Calligraphy, 2nd floor, north wing
人生苦涩,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达_图1-3
人生苦涩,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达_图1-4 Search the calendar for related events.
人生苦涩,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达_图1-5
人生苦涩,不是一枚苦瓜能够传达_图1-6
The collapse of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and subsequent conquest of China by semi-nomadic Manchu tribesmen from northeast of the Great Wall comprised some of the most traumatic events in Chinese history. This wrenching era also spurred an enormous outpouring of creative energy as many former Ming subjects turned to the arts to express their loyalty to the noble but doomed cause of Ming restoration and to assert their defiance and moral virtue. Drawn from one of the finest and most comprehensive private assemblages of the art of the Ming-Qing transition, this exhibition will showcase more than sixty landscape paintings and calligraphies that highlight the intensely personal styles created by the leading artists of that time. Particularly noteworthy are the clusters of exceptional works by Huang Daozhou, Hongren, Bada Shanren (Zhu Da), and Shitao.

The Manchu conquest followed several decades of political weakness at the Ming court that had left large portions of the country in chaos. When the capital in Beijing fell to a Chinese bandit army in 1644, Manchu forces poised along the Great Wall routed the rebels but then continued their march southward. After crushing Ming resistance in the city of Yangzhou, which was burned for ten days as an example, the southern capital of Nanjing surrendered, but it took another forty years to suppress various Ming claimants to the throne and to quell armed rebellions in the south.

During this time, many former Ming subjects maintained their loyalty to the fallen regime by refusing service under the Manchu Qing ("pure") dynasty (1644–1911). To endure the often harsh conditions of alien rule, these so-called leftover subjects took psychological as well as physical refuge in nature, and their representations of landscape often project their emotional responses to this radically changed world order. In transforming painting and calligraphy into vehicles for self-expression, they demonstrated a remarkable independence from traditional styles and techniques. For this reason, they have been celebrated as visionary individualists, whose styles have remained influential down to the present day.

In order to provide an appropriate aesthetic and intellectual context for the material, the exhibition will be organized into five thematic or regional groupings: Ming Martyrs; The Yellow Mountain and Nanjing Regional Schools; Guangdong Artists; Monk Painters; and Jiangsu and Zhejiang Artists.

The works featured in the exhibition were collected in the 1950s and 1960s by the late Hong Kong collector Ho Iu-kwong (He Yaoguang, 1907–2006), who named his studio the Chih Lo Lou or "Hall of Supreme Bliss." The collection is now held in a nonprofit public entity administered by Mr. Ho's descendents.










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发表评论 评论 (8 个评论)

回复 谭琳 2011-9-19 16:07
找时间去看
回复 rubin 2011-9-17 22:50
To: 宋德利 你曾经说:
谢谢rubin的精彩介绍。我非常喜欢石涛的画作。你提到的那本《苦瓜和尚画语录》,法拉盛新华书店就有卖。我虽然看过很多石涛的画,但都是画册上的,印刷质量水平参差不齐,因此无法亲眼目睹真品的风采。大都会博物馆提供的真品珍品一定很值得观赏。
其实中国画是最难看得懂的,这次大都会博物馆策展人精心安排,以社会生活的内容作为主线,所有的书画作品就成了反映当时明末清初知识分子心灵和生活道路的实物,所以看起来比较容易理解。
回复 宋德利 2011-9-17 09:17
谢谢rubin的精彩介绍。我非常喜欢石涛的画作。你提到的那本《苦瓜和尚画语录》,法拉盛新华书店就有卖。我虽然看过很多石涛的画,但都是画册上的,印刷质量水平参差不齐,因此无法亲眼目睹真品的风采。大都会博物馆提供的真品珍品一定很值得观赏。
回复 rubin 2011-9-16 23:24
To: bostonese 你曾经说:
记得我大学毕业之前看《儒林外史》,读到一句“人生世上,难得的是这碗现成饭“,几乎哭了出来。如果大家都不用生计发愁,那么是不是会议更多更好的艺术和文艺作品呢?
许多震撼人心的作品,常常创作在艰难的时代。
都吃饱饭了,就会去看戏,或者去逛博物馆。
也许,饿着肚子的时候灵感更多?
回复 bostonese 2011-9-16 23:11
记得我大学毕业之前看《儒林外史》,读到一句“人生世上,难得的是这碗现成饭“,几乎哭了出来。如果大家都不用生计发愁,那么是不是会议更多更好的艺术和文艺作品呢?
回复 陈晚 2011-9-16 09:37
长知识,心有余戚。
回复 青竹凌云 2011-9-16 08:54
欣赏!学习!
回复 经典影片 2011-9-16 08:46
学习了,谢谢分享您的精彩故事!

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