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文化与互惠模式:交换类型、调节焦点和情绪的作用

已有 128 次阅读2021-6-5 16:44 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:时尚天地分享到微信

文化与互惠模式:交换类型、调节焦点和情绪的作用

Cultureand Patterns of Reciprocity: The Role of Exchange Type, Regulatory Focus, andEmotions

 

Deng, YingliWang,Cynthia S; Aime, Federico;

Wang, Long; Sivanathan, Niro; Kim, Yun Chung (Karina)

 

摘要】互惠是维持社会关系的基本机制。基于升级的理论表明,互惠性会随着时间而增强。相比之下,基于公平的理论则提出人们以实物来作为对等的行为。我们通过考察不同文化背景下的社会交流来调和这些矛盾的观点。通过三个互补实验,我们研究了东亚地区和北美地区的人何时,如何以及为何随时间推移积极行为与消极行为之间的差异。研究1表明,在积极构架的交流(即给予)中,美国人提升了互惠度,而新加坡人则以实物互惠。但是,在负面定格的交流中(即收受),新加坡人升级了对等关系,而美国人则进行了实物互惠。研究2使用香港人复制了结果,并表明监管重点上的文化差异与特定的情感(即焦虑和幸福)相关,然后彼此之间的互惠度逐渐提高。为了确定因果关系,研究3在一种文化中操纵了监管重点,并复制了结果模式。

 

Abstract: Reciprocity is a fundamental mechanism forsustained social relationships. Escalation-based theories suggest thatreciprocity intensifies over time. In contrast, equity-based theories proposethat people reciprocate behaviors in kind. We reconcile these conflictingperspectives by examining social exchanges across different cultural contexts.Using three complementary experiments, we investigate when, how, and whyindividuals in East Asian settings and those in North American settingsdifferentially reciprocate positive versus negative behaviors over time. Study1 demonstrated that in positively framed exchanges (i.e., giving) Americansescalated their reciprocity, but Singaporeans reciprocated in kind. However, innegatively framed exchanges (i.e., taking), Singaporeans escalated theirreciprocity, but Americans reciprocated in kind. Study 2 replicated the resultsusing Hong Kongers and showed that cultural differences in regulatory focuswere associated with specific emotions (i.e., anxiety and happiness), whichthen escalated reciprocity. To establish causality, Study 3 manipulatedregulatory focus within one culture and replicated the pattern of results.


论文原文:Deng, Y., Wang, C. S., &Aime, F., et al. (2021). Culture and patterns of reciprocity: The role ofexchange type, regulatory focus, and emotions. Personality and SocialPsychology Bulletin, 47(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167220913694










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