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友谊嫉妒:面对第三方威胁时保护友谊的工具?

已有 98 次阅读2021-7-28 17:10 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:时尚天地分享到微信

友谊嫉妒:面对第三方威胁时保护友谊的工具?

Friendship Jealousy: One Tool for Maintaining Friendships in the Face of Third-Party Threats?

 

(原载《人格与社会心理学杂志(JPSP)》2021年第102卷第4期)

 

【摘要】友谊可以促进幸福、健康和生殖健康。然而,友谊也会结束——即使我们可能不希望他们这样做。造成这种情况的一个主要原因是来自第三方的干扰。然而,很少有研究探讨人们如何在面对来自第三方的真实或感知威胁时应对维持友谊的挑战,例如当我们的朋友不可避免地结交新朋友或建立新的浪漫关系时。与早期发展研究中的概念化相比,将友谊嫉妒视为完全不适应,我们认为友谊嫉妒是一种被忽视的友谊维持工具。我们通过一系列11项研究(N=2,918)使用假设场景、回忆真实世界事件和操纵在线情感体验,来推导出和测试友谊嫉妒是否具有精心设计的工具的功能,以帮助我们留住朋友面对第三方威胁。与我们的命题一致,研究结果表明:友谊嫉妒是(a)由第三方对友谊的威胁所引起的(但不仅仅是友谊的预期损失),(b)对受到威胁的友谊的价值敏感,(c)强烈校准到一个人被替换的线索,甚至是更直观的线索(例如,朋友和闯入者在一起的时间),并且(d)最终激发旨在对抗第三方对友谊的威胁的行为(“朋友守卫”)。尽管友谊嫉妒可能对体验不利,但它可能包括为有益(可以说是亲社会)目的而设计的功能:帮助维持友谊。

【关键词】友谊,嫉妒,朋友保护,伴侣选择,关系维护


[Abstract] Friendships can foster happiness, health, and reproductive fitness. However, friendships end—even when we might not want them to. A primary reason for this is interference from third parties. Yet, little work has explored how people meet the challenge of maintaining friendships in the face of real or perceived threats from third parties, as when our friends inevitably make new friends or form new romantic relationships. In contrast to earlier conceptualizations from developmental research, which viewed friendship jealousy as solely maladaptive, we propose that friendship jealousy is one overlooked tool of friendship maintenance. We derive and test—via a series of 11 studies (N = 2,918) using hypothetical scenarios, recalled real-world events, and manipulation of online emotional experiences—whether friendship jealousy possesses the features of a tool well-designed to help us retain friends in the face of third-party threats. Consistent with our proposition, findings suggest that friendship jealousy is (a) uniquely evoked by third-party threats to friendships (but not the prospective loss of the friendship alone), (b) sensitive to the value of the threatened friendship, (c) strongly calibrated to cues that one is being replaced, even over more intuitive cues (e.g., the amount of time a friend and interloper spend together), and (d) ultimately motivates behavior aimed at countering third-party threats to friendship (“friend guarding”). Even as friendship jealousy may be negative to experience, it may include features designed for beneficial—and arguably prosocial—ends: to help maintain friendships.

[Key words] friendship, jealousy, friend guarding, partner choice, relationship maintenance


论文原文Krems, J. A., Williams, K. E., Aktipis, A., & Kenrick, D. T. (2021). Friendship jealousy: One tool for maintaining friendships in the face of third-party threats?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 120(4): 977-1012. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000311

 

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