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罪责感:听从命令还是自己做决定

已有 89 次阅读2021-10-11 13:43 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:时尚天地分享到微信

罪责感:听从命令还是自己做决定

 Feelings of Culpability: Just Following Orders Versus Making the Decision Oneself

 

—原载美国《心理科学》杂志2021年第32卷第5期—

<Psychological Science> 2021, 32 (5)

 

【摘要】在五个实验(N=1,490)中,参与者被要求将自己想象成自动驾驶汽车的程序员,他们必须决定如何对汽车进行编程以应对潜在事故:饶恕司机还是饶恕行人。或者,参与者想象他们是一名市长,正在应对有关COVID-19的道德困境。他们要么自己决定如何对汽车进行编程,要么决定实施哪种COVID-19政策(高代理条件),要么他们的上司告诉他们如何行动(低代理条件)。在得知由于他们的行为而导致悲惨的结果后,参与者报告说他们感到有罪。虽然我们期待与自己做出决定相比,如果人们按照上级的禁令行事,他们对结果的责任感会更小,实际上,当参与者听从上级的命令时,他们会感到更有责任感。讨论了这一违反直觉的发现的一些可能原因。

 

【关键词】决策、判断、道德、自动驾驶汽车、观点采择、COVID-19、电车问题、代理、纽伦堡防御、开放数据、开放材料

 

[Abstract] In five experiments (N=1,490), participants were asked to imagine themselves as programmers of self-driving cars who had to decide how to program the car to respond in a potential accident: spare the driver or spare pedestrians. Alternatively, participants imagined that they were a mayor grappling with difficult moral dilemmas concerning COVID-19. Either they, themselves, had to decide how to program the car or which COVID-19 policy to implement(high-agency condition) or they were told by their superior how to act(low-agency condition). After learning that a tragic outcome occurred because of their action, participants reported their felt culpability. Although we expected people to feel less culpable about the outcome if they acted in accordance with their superior's injunction than if they made the decision themselves, participants actually felt more culpable when they followed their superior’s order. Some possible reasons for this counterintuitive finding are discussed.


[Key words] decision making, judgment, morality, autonomous vehicles, perspective taking, COVID-19, trolley problem, agency, Nuremberg defense, open data, open materials

 

这篇中文解析是针对论文《罪责感:听从命令还是自己做决定(Feelings of Culpability: Just Following Orders Versus Making the Decision Oneself)》的一篇论文解析,该论文于2021年5月发表于《心理科学(Psychological Science)》杂志第32卷第5期上。该研究作者为美国纽约哥伦比亚大学的Maayan Malter, Sonia Kim和Janet Metcalfe。


(中文解析见《华人心理健康报》2021年10月11日PDF版)


论文原文:Malter, M. S., Kim, S. S., & Metcalfe, J.(2021). Feelings of Culpability: Just Following Orders Versus Making the Decision Oneself. Psychological Science, 32(5), 635–645.

https://doi.org/10.1177/09567976211002821

 

(需要英文原文的朋友,请联系微信:millerdeng95)











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