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双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)六

热度 1已有 805 次阅读2017-3-27 22:39 |个人分类:顾绍骅艺术观点与作品|系统分类:艺术分享到微信

六、      中国画的“品位”

绘画是有层次和品位的。中国古代画论把画品分为许多层次,一般而言,妙品比能品为高,而神品又比妙品为高,高水平的画家当然应该追求最高层次——神品。而神品又必须以能品和妙品为基础,连能品都达不到,怎么能成为妙品呢同理,连妙品都达不到,又怎么能成为神品呢可见。神品离不开能品和妙品,能品和妙品是神品的必要准备和必要条件,而神品是能品和妙品的最高归宿:凡是艺术作品,都由三个层次组成。第一个层次是艺术语言。它是艺术作品的形式层面,主要包括艺术语言和形式结构。也就是各门艺术独特的表现方式和手段。在绘画中主要指线条、笔墨、色彩、构图。(如图所示:张仃 《苍山牧歌》)

 
双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)六_图1-1 

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Six, Chinese painting "grading"

Painting is a level and grade. China ancient paintings on the painting materials divided into many levels, in general, exquisite works than to reach the highest level and high works, myth, and the works than the exquisite works of high, high level of artists should pursue the highest levels of the highest level - myth, works. The highest level of myth, and the works must be able to reach the works and exquisite works as the foundation, even to work are not, how can it become exquisite works similarly, even subtle works are not, how can it become the highest level of myth, the work of the. The highest level of myth, the work cannot do without to work and exquisite works, can achieve the works and exquisite works is the prerequisite and necessary preparation for the highest level of myth, works, and the highest level of myth, work is the highest end to work and exquisite works:

All works of art are made up of three levels. The first level is the artistic language. It is the form of art works, including the artistic language and the formal structure. It is also the unique way and means of art. In painting, mainly refers to lines, ink, color, composition. (as shown in the picture: Zhang Ding "Cangshan grazing song")

这些艺术语言,不但是创造艺术形象的表现方式和手段,而且本身就具有独立的审美价值;艺术语言的运用高低,对创造艺术形象起着直接的作用,艺术家正是通过艺术语言,塑造出各种各样的艺术形象、并表达出艺术家对生活和自然的独特体验和感受。(如图所示:启功《仿古山水》)

 
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The art of language, style and artistic image creation means on the one hand, second is the aesthetic value itself is independent of the language of art; the use of high and low, a direct role in the creation of artistic image, the artist is through the language of art, to create a variety of artistic images, and artists to express their life and nature the unique experience and feelings. (pictured: Qi Gong "antique landscape")


由于艺术语言在艺术作品中有着极其重要的作用,所以各门艺术都十分重视对艺术语言的研完和运用,也都十分重视艺术语言的创新和探索。艺术作品的第二个层次是艺术形象,它是艺术作品的内容美。美术作品主要塑造视觉形象、它直接付诸欣赏者的视觉感官、因而特别富有直观性、生动性、具体性。(如图所示:宋文治《写意山水》)

 
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Because of the extremely important role of artistic language in the works of art, the art of each one pays much attention to the study and application of the artistic language. The second level is the artistic image, which is the content of the works of art. The main work of art is to shape the visual image, which is directly put into the visual sense of the viewer, so it is more intuitive, vivid and concrete. (as shown in the "Freehand landscape": Song Wenzhi)


在艺术作品中,艺术形象是艺术作品的核心和关键。在绘画中。不能为笔墨而笔墨,也不能为艺术语言而艺术语言,艺术语言最终是为了塑造艺术形象,而艺术意蕴也是蕴藏在艺术形象之中的,从这个意义上讲,没有艺术形象就没有艺术作品。艺术形象越鲜明、越典型,艺术作品就越有生命力;艺术家的使命之一,就是要塑造典型、鲜明、生动、优美的艺术形象。艺术形象不仅具有具体可感的形象性,而且要具有典型性和概括性,它把无比丰富的生活用典型化的手法概括到形象之中。(如图所示:吴作人  《金鱼图》)

 
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In the works of art, artistic image is the core and key. In painting. Not only for the pen and ink (techniques) and traditional culture, no pen and ink culture, is not the language of art and artistic language, artistic language is to create the ultimate artistic image, and the meaning of art also contains the image of thearts, in this sense: there will be no image of art works of art meaning. The more vivid and typical the artistic image is, the more vitality of the works of art. One of the mission of the artist is to create a typical, distinct, vivid and beautiful artistic image. The image of art not only has a specific and sensitive image, but also has a typical and general, it is extremely rich life with the typical approach to the image. (as shown in the picture: Wu Zuoren "goldfish figure")


艺术形象又具有情感性和思想性。在艺术形象中,必须融进艺术家的喜怒爱憎,渗透进艺术家对生活的思考和评价。艺术形象还具有审美意丈,它凝聚着艺术家审美理想和审美情趣,闪耀着艺术创造的光辉,能给欣赏者以美的享受。作为美术家不但要追求以艺术语言为主的形式美,还要进一步追求以艺术形象为主的内容美,从艺术层次来讲,内容美比形式美更高更难。当然,内容美又脱离不开形式美,世上没有无形式的内容,一定的内容总是要通过一定的形式才能表现出来,形式美是内容美的必要条件和必要准备,而内容美又是形式美的目的和归宿。(如图所示:陆俨少《写意山水》)

 
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The image of art is emotional and ideological. In the image of art, we must melt into the artist's joy, anger, love, hatred, infiltration into the artist's thinking and evaluation of life. The image of art also has the aesthetic meaning, which embodies the aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste of the artist, shines the brilliance of artistic creation, and gives the enjoyment of beauty to the appreciation. As artists not only to the pursuit of formal beauty in art language, but also to further pursue the beauty of content to art image, from the artistic level, the content of beauty beauty of form more difficult. Of course, the beauty of content and inseparable from the beauty of form, there is no such form without content, some content is always shown by some form of order, the beauty of form is a necessary condition for the content of the United States and the necessary preparations, and the content and form of beauty beauty is the purpose and destination. (as shown in the "Freehand landscape": u yan shao)


艺术作品的第三个层次是艺术意蕴,这是艺术作品的最高层次,也是一个艺术家终生为之奋斗的目标:艺术意蕴是指艺术作品中蕴含着的深层的人生哲理、诗情画意或精神内涵。它是艺术家对艺术形象、艺术典型或意境的深刻领悟和创造的结果。(如图所示:王个簃《花鸟》)

 
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The third level is the meaning of art works of art, this is the highest level of works of art, the artist is also a lifelong goal: the art of implication is in the works of art contains deep philosophy of life, poetic Chinese painting or spiritual connotation. It is the artist's deep understanding and creation of artistic image, artistic style or artistic conception. (as shown in Figure: Wang Ge Yi "Flower and bird painting")


黑格尔在《美学》中认为:“意蕴总是比直接显现的形象更为深远的一种东西。艺术作品应该具有意蕴”(见《美学》第一卷25)。艺术意蕴也就是唐代诗论家司空图提出的“象外之象、”“景外之景”、“韵外之致”、“味外之旨”,也就是比艺术形象本身更加深广隽永的精神内涵,这种内涵蕴藏在艺术形象之内,只有凭借欣赏者的细心体察、玩味、感悟、领会,才能真正认识知押解例如:徐悲鸿在抗日战争期间画的《风雨鸡鸣》除了娴熟的笔墨和生动、准确、优美的艺术形象外,还有着深刻的艺术意蕴,  当时正值日寇铁蹄践踏神州大地、中华民族处在水深火热之中,徐悲鸿画了一个挺胸昂首,站在石头上引吭高鸣的大公鸡。来激发人们奋起抗日、还我江山的勇气和决心,表现了徐悲鸿强烈的爱国主丈情怀和民族的自信心。 

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 艺术意蕴要求艺术家在有限中体现出无限,在偶然中蕴藏必然,在个别中包含普遍,艺术意蕴可以看作是内容与形式的统一、感性与理性的统一、客观与主观的统一、再现与表现的统一、具象与抽象的统一、形象与哲理的统一。


Hagel in the "Aesthetics" that: "the meaning of the image is always more direct than the appearance of a more profound thing. Works of art should have meaning "(see" Aesthetics "Volume 25). Artistic implication is the Tang Dynasty poetics proposed by Kongtu Si Image outside image, "" Scenery beyond scenery "," poems other, "taste than charm" other than Purpose ", which is more profound than artistic image and meaningful spiritual connotation, the connotation contained in the artistic image, only with the appreciation of the observe carefully, ponder, perception, understanding, in order to truly understand knowledge such as: Xu Beihong escorted during the Anti Japanese War painting" Fowls crow in the wind and rain say what others dare not to say. "in addition to the skillful painting and vivid, accurate and beautiful image of the art, and art with profound implications. At that time the Japanese cruel oppression of the Chinese nation, China in dire straits, Xu Beihong drew a straightens out, stood on a stone Turn to the public high Ming ming. Make a vigorous start to stimulate the people of up against Japan (Japanese War of aggression against China), I Jiangshan courage and determination, the performance of the Xu Beihong main Zhang strong patriotic sentiments and national self-confidence. Artistic implication artists in the limited requirements embodied in the unlimited, natural reserves in the accident, generally included in the individual, the meaning of art can be regarded as the content and form of unity, the unity of emotional and rational, objective and subjective unity, unity, and reappear performance of the concrete and abstract unity, the unity of image and philosophy.


艺术意蕴具有多义性和模糊性的特点,既是具体的确定的,又是不确定的。艺术意蕴可以看作不完全是由艺术形象体现出来的主题思想,它比主题思想更宽泛更深刻,它是一种更加形而上的东西,它是一种哲理和诗情,常常是只可意会,难以言传,只可接近它,无法穷尽它,即“此中有真意,欲辩已忘言”。艺术意蕴需要欣赏者用自己的全部心灵和才智去探究和领悟,是艺术作个层次的完美结合,才形成了传世名作。品具有不朽的艺术魅力的根本原因。具有远见卓识的艺术家,不能满足于艺术语言和艺术形象的探求和创造,还应更上一层楼,追求和创造具有深刻艺术意蕴的作品。

 
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Artistic implication Has the characteristics of polysemy and ambiguity, both the identification of specific, is not sure. Artistic implication can be viewed as incomplete is reflected by the artistic image of the theme, it is broader than the theme more deeply, it is a more physical things, it is a kind of philosophical and poetic, is often It can be felt, It is difficult to explain in words, can only be close to it, explain It can not be exhaustive. these are True, "Among meaning, Want to argue Have forgotten to say". Artistic implication need to appreciate you with all Heart soul and intelligence to explore and understand, is art for the perfect combination of level, it formed a masterpiece. The root cause of the immortal artistic charm. The visionary artist, search can not be satisfied with the artistic language and artistic image and creation, also should strive for further improvement, and the pursuit of artistic creation has a profound implication of the works.

著名的美术史家郑午昌说过:“综观中西绘画,而寻其演进之次序,可分为四程,第一程漫涂,第二程形似,第三程工巧,第四程神化。”有一点需要指出:在艺术作品的层次构成中,任何一个作品都必须具有前两个层次,但又不能停留在前二个层次上(即艺术语言和艺术形象),而应该尽可能地追求第三个层次,即艺术意蕴。 

 
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 作为最高层次的艺术意蕴,并不是每一件艺术作品都必须具有的,某些偏重于娱乐性、功利性或纪念性的作品,常常不存在这一层次,或者说,难以达到第三个层次,但是,从总体而言,正是这些艺术作品中的这三个层次具有相对独立的意义,其中,每一层次都有自身的审美价值,有的艺术作品或许只有其中某一层次比较突出,或者有独创的艺术语言,或者有感人的艺术形象,或者有而十人寻味的艺术意蕴。但是,真正优秀的艺术作品,总是在这三个方面都卓有成就,并且将这三个层次完美融合为一个整体,只有这样的作品,才能成为传世不朽的艺术精品。(凡高的画为什么开创了世界独幅绘画的最高售价凡高为什么成为后期印象派的三大巨匠之一 后期印象派摒弃了自然的形,摆脱了“正常”、“有逻辑”的羁缚,发展成张扬个性的现代艺术。凡高艺术作品的最大特色是对炽热情感的表现,他作品中的情感像“火山的爆发”一样,无比热烈奔放、震撼心灵,在这一点上,以前的画家,没有一个画家可以和他相比,正因为如此,他才永载史册,成为一代风范,也正因为如此,他的作品才开创了世界之最高售价。从许多成功画家的成功奥秘中不难得出一个结论:画画,不能只画真实,也不能停留在再现上,一定要画出自己的情感,这是画家成功的秘诀之一。)

 
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The famous art historian Zheng Wuchang said: "in Chinese and Western painting, and the evolution of the search order, can be divided into four processes, the first process of diffuse coating, second shape, third fine, fourth apotheosis." It should be pointed out that: the level of works of art form, any works must have the first two levels, but can not remain at two levels (i.e., artistic language and artistic image), but should try to seek the third levels, namely the meaning of art. As the highest level of the meaning of art, and not every piece of art must have, some emphasis on entertainment and utilitarian or monumental works, often do not exist at this level, or that is difficult to reach the third level, but, generally speaking, is a relatively independent significance, this three levels of these works of art in which each level has its own esthetic value, some works of art, perhaps only one level is more prominent, or a unique artistic language, or moving image arts or artistic implication and ten ruminate. But the truly outstanding works of art, always in the three aspects are accomplished, and the three level perfect integration as a whole, only such works can become enduring art. (Van Gogh why created the world alone paintings become the highest price why postimpressionist Vincent Van Gogh three great masters of post Impressionist abandon the natural shape, get rid of the "normal" and "logical" trammels, developed into the individuality of modern art. The biggest feature is the hot Van Gogh works of art expression of emotion, emotion in his works like "the volcano", very enthusiastic and shocking, at this point, before the painter, not a painter can be compared with him, because of this, he was forever in the annals of history, become a generation of style, but also because of this, his work will create the highest price of the world. It is not difficult to draw a conclusion from the success of many successful painters: painting, not only painting the real, can not stay in the reproduction, it is necessary to draw their own emotions, which is one of the secrets of the artist's success.

 

 待续

To be continued











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