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已有 2396 次阅读2013-5-27 19:30 |个人分类:民生|系统分类:科技教育| 饮食, , 联合国 分享到微信

UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet



Lesser consumption of animal products is necessary to save the world from the worst impacts of climate change, UN report says.


An cattle ranch in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The UN says agriculture is on a par with fossil fuel consumption because both rise rapidly with increased economic growth. Photograph: HO/Reuters


      A global shift towards a vegan diet is vital to save the world from hunger, fuel poverty and the worst impacts of climate change, a UN report said today. 

       根据联合国今天发表的报告: 为了拯救地球免于饥饿、家庭取暖燃料匮乏、及气候变迁所带来最严重的影响,全球改采纯素饮食( vegan)至关重要。


As the global population surges towards a predicted 9.1 billion people by 2050, western tastes for diets rich in meat and dairy products are unsustainable, says the report from United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) international panel of sustainable resource management.                                   



It says: "Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products."  

       这项报告表示: "人口增加带来越来越多的肉食消费,而农牧业对环境带来的冲击,预料将大幅地增加。与石化燃料不同的是,农牧业不容易有替代方案:人都得吃东西。所以,如果要减轻农牧业对环境带来的冲击,唯一可行的办法,只有靠全世界大规模的饮食改变,不吃动物产品。" 


Professor Edgar Hertwich, the lead author of the report, said: "Animal products cause more damage than [producing] construction minerals such as sand or cement, plastics or metals. Biomass and crops for animals are as damaging as [burning] fossil fuels."                                                                    



The recommendation follows advice last year that a vegetarian diet was better for the planet from Lord Nicholas Stern, former adviser to the Labour government on the economics of climate change. Dr Rajendra Pachauri, chair of the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), has also urged people to observe one meat-free day a week to curb carbon emissions.                                                                                                       



The panel of experts ranked products, resources, economic activities and transport according to their environmental impacts. Agriculture was on a par with fossil fuel consumption because both rise rapidly with increased economicgrowth, they said.                                                                                 


Ernst von Weizsaecker, an environmental scientist who co-chaired the panel, said: "Rising affluence is triggering a shift in diets towards meat and dairy products - livestock now consumes much of the world's crops and by inference a great deal of freshwater, fertilisers and pesticides."                           



Both energy and agriculture need to be "decoupled" from economic growth because environmental impacts rise roughly 80% with a doubling of income, the report found.     

       经济成长必须 "扣除" 能源以及农业部门,因为在国民所得加倍的同时,这两种产业造成的环境冲击也会上升约80%。


Achim Steiner, the UN under-secretary general and executive director of the UNEP, said: "Decoupling growth from environmental degradation is the number one challenge facing governments in a world of rising numbers of people, rising incomes, rising consumption demands and the persistent challenge of poverty alleviation." 

       联合国副秘书长,同时也是联合国环境规划署执行长的Achim Steiner说 "世界人口不断增加、所得不断提高、资源消耗越来越大,我们还得持续努力消弭贫穷。在这种世界局势之下,各国政府的最大挑战,就是得将经济成长扣除环境破坏所带来的成本。"


The panel, which drew on numerous studies including the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, cites the following pressures on the environment as priorities for governments around the world: climate change, habitat change, wasteful use of nitrogen and phosphorus in fertilisers, over-exploitation of fisheries, forests and other resources, invasive species, unsafe drinking water and sanitation, lead exposure, urban air pollution and occupational exposure to particulate matter. 

       委员会也引用了包括千禧年生态系统评估 (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) 在内的各种报告,列举以下各项环境议题,供各国政府施政的优先重点:气候变迁、栖地变迁、肥料里过度添加氮磷元素、渔业滥捕、林业以及其它资源的过度开采、物种入侵、不安全的饮水及卫生问题、铅暴露、城市空气污染、职业场所污染。

      Agriculture, particularly meat and dairy products, accounts for 70% of global freshwater consumption, 38% of the total land use and 19% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions, says the report, which has been launched to coincide with UN World Environment day on Saturday. 


      Last year the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation said that food production would have to increase globally by 70% by 2050 to feed the world's surging population. The panel says that efficiency gains in agriculture will be overwhelmed by the expected population growth.                                              


      Prof Hertwich, who is also the director of the industrial ecology programme at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, said that developing countries – where much of this population growth will take place – must not follow the western world's pattern of increasing consumption: "Developing countries should not follow our model. But it's up to us to develop the technologies in, say, renewable energy or irrigation methods." 


新闻出处 : http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jun/02/un-report-meat-free-diet

Wednesday 2 June 2010 18.09 BST 





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