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儿童密切反事实推理和情感推理

已有 195 次阅读2021-12-17 22:33 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:科技教育分享到微信

儿童密切反事实推理和情感推理

Oh ... So Close! Children’s Close Counterfactual Reasoning and Emotion Inferences

 

原载美国《发展心理学》杂志2021年第57卷第5期

<Developmental Psychology>, 2021, 57 (5)

 

【摘要】我们对结果的看法通常取决于替代结果与发生的接近程度。在四个实验中,我们调查了主要是白人、中产阶级、加拿大儿童(N = 425,实验 1-3)和美国成年人(N = 227,实验 4)在推断其他人的情绪时是否考虑接近的反事实替代方案。在实验 1 中,6 岁的孩子(但不是 4 岁和 5 岁的孩子)推断,如果代理人后来发现可以轻松赢得更有吸引力的奖项,她会为赢得平庸的奖项而感到更难过。然而,所有年龄段的孩子都无法判断更好的结果是否很容易发生。在实验 2 中,当 5 岁和 6 岁的孩子事先知道奖品的位置时,他们推断出代理人对赢得平庸的奖品同样感到高兴,无论她是否几乎赢得了更好的奖品。同样,他们没有认识到更好的结果何时是接近的反事实可能性。在实验 3 中,我们加入了关于替代品接近程度的额外线索,5 岁和 6 岁的孩子都推断她会为赢得平庸的奖品而感到难过,而 6 岁的孩子承认有吸引力的奖品是接近的反事实替代。在实验 4 中,成年人在推断情绪时会考虑接近的反事实。我们的研究结果表明,在儿童能够承认他们的亲密关系之前,接近的反事实会影响他们的情绪推理。

【关键词】情感归因、幸福、密切反事实、社会认知、认知发展

 

[Abstract] How we feel about an outcome often depends on how close an alternative outcome was to occurring. In four experiments, we investigated whether predominantly White, middle-class, Canadian children (N = 425, Experiments 1–3) and American adults (N = 227, Experiment 4) consider close counterfactual alternatives when inferring other people’s emotions. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (but not 4- and 5-year-olds)inferred that an agent would feel sadder about winning a mediocre prize if she later found out that a more attractive one could have easily been won. However, children of all ages failed to judge whether the better outcome could have easily happened. In Experiment 2, when 5- and 6-year-olds knew the locations of the prizes beforehand, they inferred that an agent would be equally happy about winning a mediocre prize, regardless if she almost won a better prize or not. Again, they did not recognize when the better outcome was a close counterfactual possibility. In Experiment 3, we included extra cues to the closeness of the alternative and both 5- and 6-year-olds inferred that she would feel sadder about winning a mediocre prize, and 6-year-olds acknowledged that the attractive prize was a close counterfactual alternative. In Experiment 4, adults considered close counterfactuals when inferring emotions. Our findings suggest that close counterfactuals influence children’s emotion inferences before they become able to acknowledge their closeness.

[Key words] emotion attribution, happiness, close counterfactuals, social cognition, cognitive development

 

本中文解析是针对论文《儿童密切反事实推理和情感推理》(Oh... So Close! Children’s Close Counterfactual Reasoning and Emotion Inferences)的一篇论文解析,该论文于2021年5月发表于发表于美国《发展心理学杂志》(Developmental Psychology)第57卷第5期上,研究者包括加拿大滑铁卢大学的Tiffany Doan, Ori Friedman和Stephanie Denison。


(中文论文解析请阅《华人心理健康报》2021年12月17日PDF版)


论文原文:Doan, T. , Friedman, J. ,Denison, S.. (2021). Oh . . . So Close! Children's close counterfactual reasoning and emotion inferences. Developmental Psychology, 57(5),678-688.

https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0001174 

 

(需要英文原文的朋友,请联系微信:millerdeng95)











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