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突显选择促进独立:对自我感知、认知和行为的影响

已有 189 次阅读2021-12-28 18:08 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:科技教育分享到微信

突显选择促进独立:对自我感知、认知和行为的影响

The salience of choice fuels independence: Implications for self-perception, cognition, and behavior

 

——原载《美国科学院院刊》2021年第118卷第30期——

<Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America>, 2021, 118(30)

 

【摘要】世界各地的人们比以往任何时候都更多地接触到选择的想法并有机会做出选择。这种对选择的想法和实践的迅速扩大暴露的后果是什么?当前的研究调查了这种突显选择的未经审查且潜在的强大后果:独立意识和体验。四项研究 (n=1,288) 涉及三种已知在突显选择和对独立的文化强调方面不同的文化背景(美国、新加坡和印度),提供了突显选择与独立性之间联系的汇聚证据。回忆选择而不是行动的新加坡学生表示自己比同龄人大(研究1)。研究2从概念上复制了这一发现,发现回忆选择而不是行动的美国人认为自己身体更强壮。在单词/非单词词汇决策任务(研究3)中,回忆选择而不是行动的新加坡学生在识别与独立相关的单词方面更快,但在识别中性或相互依赖相关的单词方面却没有。美国人、新加坡人和印度人都表示,在强调选择的组织中工作时,他们更愿意表达自己的意见。同样,美国人、新加坡人和印度人表示更喜欢在这样的组织中工作(研究4a和4b)。研究结果表明,即使在美国,独立并非占主导地位的情况下,个人的突显选择也可能会推动对独立的认识和体验。选择可能是文化变革和日益增长的全球个人主义的一种无标记和直接的机制。

 

【关键词】选择;独立;个人主义;文化

 

[Abstract] More than ever before, people across the world are exposed to ideas of choice and have opportunities to make choices. What are the consequences of this rapidly expanding exposure to the ideas and practice of choice? The current research investigated an unexamined and potentially powerful consequence of this salience of choice: an awareness and experience of independence. Four studies (n = 1,288) across three cultural contexts known to differ in both the salience of choice and the cultural emphasis on independence (the United States, Singapore, and India) provided converging evidence of a link between the salience of choice and independence. Singaporean students who recalled choices rather than actions represented themselves as larger than their peers (study 1). Conceptually replicating this finding, study 2 found that Americans who recalled choices rather than actions rated themselves as physically stronger. In a word/nonword lexical decision task (study 3), Singaporean students who recalled choices rather than actions were quicker at identifying independence-related words, but not neutral or interdependence-related words. Americans, Singaporeans, and Indians all indicated that when working in an organization that emphasized choice, they would be more likely to express their opinions. Similarly, Americans, Singaporeans, and Indians reported a preference for working in such an organization (studies 4a and 4b). The findings suggest that the salience of personal choice may drive an awareness and experience of independence even in contexts where, unlike in the United States, independence has not been the predominant ethos. Choice may be an unmarked and proximate mechanism of cultural change and growing global individualism.

 

[Key words] choice;independence;individualism;culture

 

      本中文解析是针对论文突显选择促进独立:对自我感知、认知和行为的影响(The salience of choice fuels independence: Implications for self-perception, cognition, and behavior)的一篇论文解析,该论文于2021年发表于《美国科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America)第118卷第30期上,研究者包括加拿大多伦多大学士嘉堡分校Nanakdewa Kevin美国弗吉尼亚理工大学Madan Shilpa新加坡南洋理工大学Savani Krishna美国斯坦福大学Markus Hazel Rose等学者


(中文解析请阅《华人心理健康报》2021年12月28日PDF版)


研究结论

 

选择使人们的意识和行为更独立,具体表现为感知自己更大更强壮、将注意力集中在与独立相关的刺激上,并使人们希望在一个重视选择的环境中工作以及表达自己的想法。仅仅只是突显选择就能对人们的自我感知、认知和行为产生影响。


论文原文:Nanakdewa Kevin et al. (2021). The salience of choice fuels independence: Implications for self-perception, cognition, and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(30), https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021727118