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有不良童年经历的人会较少探索并低估奖励反馈

已有 150 次阅读2022-4-25 17:29 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:科技教育分享到微信

有不良童年经历的人会较少探索并低估奖励反馈

Individuals with adverse childhood experiences explore less and underweight reward feedback

 

——原载美国《国家科学院院刊》杂志2022年第119卷第4期——

<The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences> (PNAS)2022,119 (4)

 

【摘要】不良童年经历(ACE)是导致成年后负面心理社会结果的极端压力源。非人类动物在暴露于早期压力后探索较少。因此,在这项预先注册的研究中,我们假设在人类成年人中,ACE 后探索的减少也很明显。此外,我们预测具有ACE的成年人在觅食任务中将采用依赖于最近奖励反馈的决策策略,这是一种针对不稳定环境的理性策略。我们分析了来自145名成年参与者的数据,其中47名有4个或更多ACE,98名少于4个ACE。在觅食任务中,参与者评估了利用奖励递减的已知补丁和探索具有新奖励分配的新补丁之间的权衡。使用计算建模,我们量化了参与者的决策对最近反馈的加权程度。正如预测的那样,有ACE的参与者探索得更少。然而,与我们的假设相反,他们低估了最近的反馈。这些出乎意料的发现表明,早期的逆境可能会抑制奖励敏感性。我们的结果可能有助于确定将童年创伤与精神病理学发作联系起来的认知机制。

【关键词】不良童年经历,探索,学习,报酬,创伤

 

[Abstract]Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are extreme stressors that lead to negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. Nonhuman animals explore less after exposure to early stress. Therefore, in this preregistered study, we hypothesized that reduced exploration following ACEs would also be evident inhuman adults. Further, we predicted that adults with ACEs, in a foraging task, would adopt a decision-making policy that relies on the most-recent reward feedback, a rational strategy for unstable environments. We analyzed data from145 adult participants, 47 with four or more ACEs and 98 with fewer than four ACEs. In the foraging task, participants evaluated the trade-off between exploiting a known patch with diminishing rewards and exploring a novel one with a fresh distribution of rewards. Using computational modeling, we quantified the degree to which participants’ decisions weighted recent feedback. As predicted, participants with ACEs explored less. However, contrary to our hypothesis, they underweighted recent feedback. These unexpected findings indicate that early adversity may dampen reward sensitivity. Our results may help to identify cognitive mechanisms that link childhood trauma to the onset of psychopathology.

[Key words]adverse childhood experiences; exploration; learning; reward; trauma

 

这篇中文解析是针对论文《有不良童年经历的人会较少探索并低估奖励反馈》(Individuals with adverse childhood experiences explore less and underweight reward feedback)的一篇论文解析。该论文于2022年发表于美国《国家科学院院刊》(The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS)第119卷第4期上,由伦敦大学的Alex Lloyd, Ryan Thomas McKay, and Nicholas Furl三位研究者合作完成。

 

(中文解析见《华人心理健康报》2022年4月25日PDF版)

 

论文原文:Alex Lloyd, Ryan Thomas McKay, Nicholas Furl (2022). Individuals with adverse childhood experiences explore less and underweight reward feedback. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS),119(4). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2109373119

 

(需要英文全文的朋友,请联系微信:millerdeng95)


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