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儿童心理健康监测——美国,2013-2019

已有 50 次阅读2022-5-22 15:46 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:科技教育分享到微信

儿童心理健康监测——美国,2013-2019

Mental Health Surveillance Among Children — United States, 2013–2019

 

—原载美国《发病率和死亡率周报-增刊》2022年第71卷第2期—

<Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report-Suppl>,2022, 71 (2)

 

【概要】心理健康包括一系列心理、情感、社会和行为功能,并沿着从好到差的连续体发生。先前的研究表明,儿童和青少年的心理健康与近期和长期的身体健康和慢性病、健康风险行为、社会关系、教育和就业有关。儿童心理健康的公共卫生监测可用于监测人群中的流行趋势,增加对人口和地理差异的了解,并支持有关预防和干预的决策。许多联邦数据系统收集有关儿童心理健康,特别是精神障碍的各种指标的数据。来自这些数据系统的 2013-2019 年数据表明,精神障碍始于儿童早期,并影响具有一系列社会人口特征的儿童。在此期间,在美国3-17岁儿童和青少年中诊断出的最普遍的疾病是注意力缺陷/多动障碍和焦虑症,每一种影响大约11名儿童(9.4%-9.8%)。在12-17岁的儿童和青少年中,五分之一 (20.9%) 曾经历过重度抑郁发作。2019年高中生中,36.7%的人表示过去一年持续感到悲伤或绝望,18.8%的人曾认真考虑过自杀。2018年和2019年,每10万名10至19岁的人中约有七人死于自杀。在3至17岁的儿童和青少年中,有9.6%至10.1%接受过心理健康服务。而根据家长报告,在过去的一年中,有7.8%的3-17岁的儿童和青少年因心理健康问题服用药物。大约四分之一的12-17岁儿童和青少年报告说在过去一年中接受过心理健康服务。在联邦数据系统中,有关心理健康积极指标(例如,复原力)的数据是有限的。尽管目前尚无儿童心理健康综合监测体系,也没有单一指标可用于界定儿童心理健康状况或确定患有精神障碍的儿童总数,但这些数据证实,儿童精神障碍仍然是一个重要的公众群体。健康问题。公共卫生专业人员、医疗保健提供者、州卫生官员、政策制定者和教育工作者可以使用这些发现来了解特定精神障碍的流行率和其他心理健康指标以及与心理健康监测相关的挑战。

 

[Summary] Mental health encompasses a range of mental, emotional, social, and behavioral functioning and occurs along a continuum from good to poor. Previous research has documented that mental health among children and adolescents is associated with immediate and long-term physical health and chronic disease, health risk behaviors, social relationships, education, and employment. Public health surveillance of children’s mental health can be used to monitor trends in prevalence across populations, increase knowledge about demographic and geographic differences, and support decision-making about prevention and intervention. Numerous federal data systems collect data on various indicators of children’s mental health, particularly mental disorders. The 2013–2019 data from these data systems show that mental disorders begin in early childhood and affect children with a range of sociodemographic characteristics. During this period, the most prevalent disorders diagnosed among U.S. children and adolescents aged 3–17 years were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety, each affecting approximately one in 11 (9.4%–9.8%) children. Among children and adolescents aged 12–17 years, one fifth (20.9%) had ever experienced a major depressive episode. Among high school students in 2019, 36.7% reported persistently feeling sad or hopeless in the past year, and 18.8%had seriously considered attempting suicide. Approximately seven in 100,000persons aged 10–19 years died by suicide in 2018 and 2019. Among children and adolescents aged 3–17 years, 9.6%–10.1% had received mental health services, and 7.8% of all children and adolescents aged 3–17 years had taken medication for mental health problems during the past year, based on parent report. Approximately one in four children and adolescents aged 12–17 years reported having received mental health services during the past year. In federal data systems, data on positive indicators of mental health (e.g., resilience) are limited. Although no comprehensive surveillance system for children’s mental health exists and no single indicator can be used to define the mental health of children or to identify the overall number of children with mental disorders, these data confirm that mental disorders among children continue to be a substantial public health concern. These findings can be used by public health professionals, health care providers, state health officials, policymakers, and educators to understand the prevalence of specific mental disorders and other indicators of mental health and the challenges related to mental health surveillance.

 

论文原文:RebeccaH. Bitsko,  Angelika H. Claussen, Jesse Lichstein,  Lindsey I. Black,  Sherry Everett Jones, Melissa L. Danielson, Jennifer M. Hoenig, Shane P. Davis Jack, Debra J. Brody, Shiromani Gyawali, Matthew J. Maenner, Margaret Warner, Kristin M. Holland, Ruth Perou, Alex E. Crosby, Stephen J. Blumberg, Shelli Avenevoli, Jennifer W. Kaminski, and Reem M. Ghandour (2022). Mental Health Surveillance Among Children—United States, 2013–2019. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) -Suppl, 71(2):1-42. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.su7102a1

 

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