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中国画欣赏新译 5

热度 2已有 900 次阅读2012-1-7 04:36 |个人分类:顾绍骅艺术观点与作品|系统分类:科技教育| 中国画, 诗情画意 分享到微信

     自从宋(960—1279年)、元(1271年—1368年)以后,中国画由以人物为主,逐步转为以山水、花鸟为主,由反映社会生活、描绘历史与现实人物为主,转向以描绘自然景物来折射社会生活,抒发画家感情为主。为了服从这一目的,画家们对线条作了大胆的革新,创造了具有独立审美价值的抒情线条。这种抒情线条与写实性线条的主要差别在以下两个方面。第一、抒情线条特别重视线条的自身张力。所谓张力,简而言之,就是一种相反相成的力。线条张力可分组合张力与自身张力两种。顾恺之仅用横线条与倾斜卷曲的线条组合,就刻画出了人物的形貌与动态。然而他用的这种线条均匀细长,自身并无明显张力。
Since the Song Dynasty (960-1279), Yuan Dynasty (1271 -1368), the Chinese paintings from the main characters, and gradually into the landscape, birds and flowers mainly from the social life, depicting historical figures and reality-based, to To Refractive to depict nature of social life, to express feelings of the main artists。 To submit to this end, the painter who made the bold lines of innovation, creation of the independent aesthetic value of the lyric lines。 This lyrical lines and realism of the main differences between lines in the following two aspects。 First, the lyrical lines attached particular importance to the self-tension lines。 The so-called tension, in a nutshell, is a contrast Xiang-cheng of the force。 Tension combination of tension lines can be divided into two with its own tension。 Gu Kaizhi only horizontal lines and tilt curly lines portfolio, depicts a figure on the morphology and dynamics。 However, he used the uniform of this slender lines, there was no apparent tension itself。
梁楷的《六祖斫竹图》、中国画欣赏新译     5_图1-1 倪云林的《紫芝山房图》、  中国画欣赏新译     5_图1-2 华岩的《金谷园图》等,就与顾恺之的线条不同了,其线条借鉴了书法线条的特点,自身具有明显的张力。画家在画线条时,不仅像书法家那“欲左先右”、“欲上先下”,而且要使线条有虚有实、有曲有直、有浓有淡、有轻有重、有粗有细、有断有续、有行有留等等。把以前平直、均匀、细韧的线条变得曲折顿挫、千姿百态,极富情致。画家复杂多变的情感,借助这种多姿多变的线条得到了充分的宣泄。这正是中国画线条发展到高级阶段所呈现的奥秘与难以企及之处,它是几十个画家共同创造的成果。
kai-liang's "Liu Zuzhuo bamboo map", yunlin-ni "Zizhi Shan Fang Shi map", yan-hua "Jingu park map", with kaizhi-gu different lines, the lines drawn calligraphy lines The characteristics of their own obvious tension。 Painter painting in the lines, not only calligraphers like that "to the left to right," "For the first", but if there is virtual lines are, a song straight, thick with short, light a weight, Rough is fine, there have continued off and will stay there, and so on。 Of the previous straight, uniform, fine lines become tough Duncuo twists and turns, Qianzibaitai, very Qingzhi。 Painter complex and changeable emotions, by changing the lines of this scene was fully venting。 This is precisely the development of Chinese painting lines presented by the advanced stage of the mystery and difficult to reach in, it is dozens of artists work together to create results。
第二、抒情线条并不是自然状态的线条,而是有笔法的线条。中国画笔法主要是指用笔方法。它是中国画的另一个重要奥秘。中国画笔法,除了大家熟知的不同于西洋画的执笔法之外,最值得重视的是运笔法,而且不同类型的线条有不同的运笔法。运笔法也就是笔锋接触纸面时怎样运行的方法,它有多种形式,大体上可分为空间运动形式与时间运动形式。不同的轮廓线,不同的皴法、描法,其线条的空间与时间运动形式是不相同的。空间运动形式有几十种,主要是提按、旋转(绞转)、平动、摆动、从容流行等。时间运动形式也有多种,主要是疾迟(包括快速、中速、慢速)、行留、节奏、涩行与跳动等。中国画家自从掌握了这种笔法后,不仅能“牵着线条去散步”,而且能凭借它翱翔于艺术的王国,刻画各种物象,抒发复杂情感,表现不同个性。这种笔法正被现代画家继承、发展,具有很强的生命力。 中国画欣赏新译     5_图1-3
Second, the lyric line is not the natural state lines, but a technique of the lines。 China brushes law mainly refers to a pen method。 It is another important Chinese paintings mystery。 China brushes, in addition to the familiar Western painting is different from the written law, the most worthy of attention is Yunbi law, but also different types of lines have different Yunbi law。 Yunbi law is Bifeng contact paper, how to run the method, it takes many forms, in general, can be divided into space and time form of sports movement forms。 The outline of different lines, different Cunfa, the depiction of its lines of space and time form of movement is not the same。 Space the form of dozens of sports, mainly to the rotation (able to), translation, swing, pop, and so calmly。 Time has a variety of movement forms, mainly late disease (including fast, medium speed, slow), to stay the pace, such as Shibuya Bank and the beating。 Chinese artists since the master the technique, not only can "lead line to walk," but also by virtue of its flying in the Kingdom of Art, depicts the various images, to express complex emotions and performance of different personality。 This technique is being modern painter inheritance, development, and has strong vitality。
现代中国画中的线条。中国画线条经过宋、元、明、清众多画家的创造,达到新的高度。然而艺无止境,随着时代的前进,人们审美能力的提高,中国画线条仍在发展。最近几十年,特别是最近十几年,不少现代中国画家在继承前人技法的基础上,创造了许多前无古人的新线条。
Modern Chinese Painting in the lines。 Chinese painting lines in the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, such as after a large number of artists to create, to reach a new height。 However arts indefinitely, with the progress of the times, people's ability to improve the aesthetic, Chinese painting lines are still developing。 In recent decades, especially in the last 10 years, many modern Chinese painters in succession on the basis of previous techniques, has created many unprecedented new lines。
例如,李可染创造了深邃含蓄的“金错刀式”的线条;朱屺瞻创造厂老辣雄健的“铁干银钩式”的线条;刘文西创造了长于描绘北方人物古朴刚劲的线条;黄永玉创造了曲折多姿的“不连贯”线条;吴冠中创造了极富韵律美的与点分离的长线条;黄胄创造了具有力度美的近似面的宽线条;周韶华创造了线与面、线与色混融一体的具有面的效果的线条;富中奇创造了具有装饰美的表现乡土情结的线条;邱笑秋、宋雨桂等创造了以色彩笔触与水墨线条相融合的新线条等等。这些线条的创造,丰富了中国画的表现力与抒情功能。关注绘画艺术本体中点、线、面、笔墨等抽象的艺术形式;关注绘画空间上的模糊性所引发的观众的想象与再创造。因而,中国传统绘画艺术具有象征、写意、表现的基本特征。以想象真实代替视觉真实是它有别于西方古典写实性艺术的特征,也是中国画诗意化的体现方式。在观察与表现手法上,中国画“外师造化,中得心源”(张躁语)。并不是完全照抄模仿自然的客观物象,而是加入了创造者很强的主观色彩,即在造化自然的基础上,有所思想,有所寄意。  当前,中国画家正在越来越多地使用墨彩与色彩,全色彩“没骨画”得到了长足的发展。但是,线条并没有被削弱,更不会消失,而是在不断创新中形成新的形态、获得新的生命力,显现出更有时代特点的东方绘画韵味。中国画欣赏新译     5_图1-4  中国画欣赏新译     5_图1-5
For example, keran-li created a profound implication of "the wrong knife-style" lines; qizhan-zhu plant Laola Xiongjian create the "Iron stem Yingou" lines; wenxi-liu longer than that depicted the North created a figure of the ancient lines Gangjin ; Yongyu-huang created a variety of twists and turns "not coherent" lines; guanzhong-wu created a very rhythm of the separation points and the long lines; zhou-huang has created the intensity of the United States has the approximate width of the lines; shaohua - zhou created a line and face, one Hunrong color and line with the results of the line; rich in creating a singular performance of the United States decorated with native complex lines; xiaoqiu-qiu, yugui-song, and so create a color strokes and Ink lines of the integration of new lines, and so on。 The creation of these lines, enriching the performance of Chinese painting and lyric function。 Concerned about the midpoint of body painting art, line, flour, ink, and other abstract art form; drawing attention on the fuzzy space triggered by the audience's imagination and the re-creation。 As a result, traditional Chinese painting art symbolic, Freehand, the performance of the basic characteristics。 To replace the vision to imagine the real truth is it different from Western classical realism of the characteristics of art, Chinese painting is the embodiment of poetic way。 In the observation and performance practices, the Chinese painting "division of good fortune, in the heart of the source" (zao-zhang language)。 Mechanically imitate nature is not entirely the objective images, but joined the creators of the highly subjective, that is natural on the basis of good fortune, some thought, to send Italy。 At present, the Chinese artists are more and more use of color ink and color, full-color "no bone painting" has been developed by leaps and bounds。 However, the lines have not been weakened, will not disappear, but in the constant innovation in a new shape, with new vitality, showing more characteristics of the times Oriental painting flavor。










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