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压力素质模型的应用:关于吸烟、戒烟和心理健康之间关系的综述 ... ...

已有 396 次阅读2023-1-9 17:50 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:科技教育分享到微信

压力素质模型的应用:关于吸烟、戒烟和心理健康之间关系的综述

An application of the stress-diathesis model: A review about the association between smoking tobacco, smoking cessation, and mental health


——原载《国际临床与健康心理学杂志2023年第23卷第1期——

<International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology> 2023, 23 (1)


【摘要】背景:在世界范围内,大约 24% 的成年人吸烟,但吸烟在精神疾病患者中的流行率高达两倍。越来越多的证据表明,吸烟可能是精神疾病发展的危险因素,戒烟可以改善心理健康。方法:在这篇学术综述中,我们有:(1) 使用 Bradford-Hill 标准的现代改编来支持吸烟可能导致精神疾病以及戒烟可以逆转这些影响的论点,以及 (2) 通过考虑心理、生物和环境因素,我们将迄今为止的证据构建成压力素质模型。结果:我们的模型表明,吸烟是一种心理生物学压力源,但这种影响的大小是由个人素质介导和调节的,以发展精神疾病和其他脆弱性和保护性因素。我们探索支持该模型的生物学机制,例如烟草对神经系统和氧化应激途径造成的损害。此外,我们讨论的证据表明,这些系统很可能在戒烟后得到修复,从而改善心理健康。结论:基于包括实验性、观察性和新颖因果推理研究在内的大量文献,有一致的证据表明吸烟会对大脑和心理健康产生负面影响,并且戒烟可以逆转吸烟引起的心理疾病。我们的模型表明,吸烟预防和治疗策略在预防和治疗精神疾病以及身体疾病方面都有作用。
【关键词】戒烟;心理健康;烟草;成瘾;压力素质;流行病学;公共卫生

[Abstract] Background: Worldwide, approximately 24% of all adults smoke, but smoking is up to twice as prevalent in people with mental ill-health. There is growing evidence that smoking may be a causal risk factor in the development of mental illness, and that smoking cessation leads to improved mental health. Methods:In this scholarly review we have: (1) used a modern adaptation of the Bradford-Hill criteria to bolster the argument that smoking could cause mental ill-health and that smoking cessation could reverse these effects, and (2) by considering psychological, biological, and environmental factors, we have structured the evidence to-date into a stress-diathesis model. Results: Our model suggests that smoking is a psychobiological stressor, but that the magnitude of this effect is mediated and modulated by the individual's diathesis to develop mental ill-health and other vulnerability and protective factors. We explore biological mechanisms that underpin the model, such as tobacco induced damage to neurological systems and oxidative stress pathways. Furthermore, we discuss evidence indicating that it is likely that these systems repair after smoking cessation, leading to better mental health. Conclusion:Based on a large body of literature including experimental, observational, and novel causal inference studies, there is consistent evidence showing that smoking can negatively affect the brain and mental health, and that smoking cessation could reverse the mental ill-health caused by smoking. Our model suggests that smoking prevention and treatment strategies have a role in preventing and treating mental illness as well as physical illness.
[Key words] Smoking cessation; Mental health; Tobacco; Addiction; Stress-diathesis; Epidemiology; Public health

论文原文:Gemma M. J. Taylor, Jorien L. Treur (2023). An application of the stress-diathesis model: A review about the association between smoking tobacco, smoking cessation, and mental health. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 23 (1).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2022.100335

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