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心理健康和精神障碍的社会决定因素:证据、预防和建议

已有 82 次阅读2024-6-17 15:55 |个人分类:心理学、心理健康、心理咨询|系统分类:科技教育分享到微信

心理健康和精神障碍的社会决定因素:证据、预防和建议

The social determinants of mental health and disorder: evidence, prevention and recommendations

 

——原载《世界精神病学》2024年第23卷第1期——

<World Psychiatry> Volume 23, Issue 1, 2024

 

【摘要】处于更不利的社会环境的人,在其生命历程中更容易出现心理健康问题,而这种情况往往是由结构性因素决定的,这些因素会产生并延续代际劣势和健康状况不佳的循环。应对这些挑战是社会正义的当务之急。在本文中,我们提供了解决导致心理健康问题的社会决定因素的路线图。我们尽可能依靠高质量的证据,首先列出支持社会决定因素与后期心理健康结果之间因果关系的文献。鉴于这个主题的广度,我们重点关注生命历程中最普遍的社会决定因素,以及在主要精神障碍中常见的社会决定因素。我们主要借鉴全球北方的现有证据,承认其他全球背景将面临类似和独特的社会决定因素,需要给予同等关注。我们的许多证据都集中在边缘化群体的心理健康上,因此他们经常面临多种相互交叉的社会风险因素。这些群体包括难民、寻求庇护者和流离失所者,以及种族少数群体;女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋、跨性别者和酷儿(LGBTQ+)群体;以及生活在贫困中的人。然后,我们引入了一个预防框架,用于概念化社会决定因素与心理健康和精神障碍之间的联系,这可以指导急需的一级预防策略,以减少不平等并改善人口心理健康。随后,我们回顾了有关干预心理健康社会决定因素的候选预防策略的证据。这些干预措施大致属于普遍、有选择和有针对性的一级预防策略的范围,但我们也简要回顾了促进现有精神障碍患者康复的重要二级和三级策略。最后,我们围绕社会正义提出了七项关键建议,这些建议构成了研究、政策和公共卫生行动的路线图。采纳这些建议将为推动干预影响人口心理健康的可改变社会决定因素的努力提供机会。

【关键词】心理健康、精神障碍、社会决定因素、社会危险因素、预防、边缘群体、人口心理健康、社会公正

 

[Abstract] People exposed to more unfavourable social circumstances are more vulnerable to poor mental health over their life course, in ways that are often determined by structural factors which generate and perpetuate intergenerational cycles of disadvantage and poor health. Addressing these challenges is an imperative matter of social justice. In this paper we provide a roadmap to address the social determinants that cause mental ill health. Relying as far as possible on high‐quality evidence, we first map out the literature that supports a causal link between social determinants and later mental health outcomes. Given the breadth of this topic, we focus on the most pervasive social determinants across the life course, and those that are common across major mental disorders. We draw primarily on the available evidence from the Global North, acknowledging that other global contexts will face both similar and unique sets of social determinants that will require equitable attention. Much of our evidence focuses on mental health in groups who are marginalized, and thus often exposed to a multitude of intersecting social risk factors. These groups include refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons, as well as ethnoracial minoritized groups; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ+) groups; and those living in poverty. We then introduce a preventive framework for conceptualizing the link between social determinants and mental health and disorder, which can guide much needed primary prevention strategies capable of reducing inequalities and improving population mental health. Following this, we provide a review of the evidence concerning candidate preventive strategies to intervene on social determinants of mental health. These interventions fall broadly within the scope of universal, selected and indicated primary prevention strategies, but we also briefly review important secondary and tertiary strategies to promote recovery in those with existing mental disorders. Finally, we provide seven key recommendations, framed around social justice, which constitute a roadmap for action in research, policy and public health. Adoption of these recommendations would provide an opportunity to advance efforts to intervene on modifiable social determinants that affect population mental health.

[Key words] Mental health, mental disorder, social determinants, social risk factors, prevention, marginalized groups, population mental health, social justice

 

论文原文:James B. Kirkbride, Deidre M. Anglin, Ian Colman, Jennifer Dykxhoorn, Peter B. Jones, Praveetha Patalay, Alexandra Pitman, Emma Soneson, Thomas Steare, Talen Wright, and Siân Lowri Griffiths (2024). The social determinants of mental health and disorder: evidence, prevention and recommendations. World Psychiatry, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 58–90.

https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.21160

 

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